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Lecture# Descriptive Geometry: The Sphere

Description

This lecture covers the definition and properties of a sphere, including metric and geometric definitions, symmetry properties, plane sections, tangent planes, projections, and missing point projections. It also explores sections of a sphere, both large and small circles, and provides examples of their construction.

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Related concepts (61)

Related lectures (23)

Symmetry

Symmetry () in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, the term has a more precise definition and is usually used to refer to an object that is invariant under some transformations, such as translation, reflection, rotation, or scaling. Although these two meanings of the word can sometimes be told apart, they are intricately related, and hence are discussed together in this article.

Circle

A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. Usually, the radius is required to be a positive number. A circle with (a single point) is a degenerate case. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. Specifically, a circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior.

Tangent

In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of infinitely close points on the curve. More precisely, a straight line is said to be a tangent of a curve y = f(x) at a point x = c if the line passes through the point (c, f(c)) on the curve and has slope f(c), where f is the derivative of f. A similar definition applies to space curves and curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space.

Symmetry group

In group theory, the symmetry group of a geometric object is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant, endowed with the group operation of composition. Such a transformation is an invertible mapping of the ambient space which takes the object to itself, and which preserves all the relevant structure of the object. A frequent notation for the symmetry group of an object X is G = Sym(X). For an object in a metric space, its symmetries form a subgroup of the isometry group of the ambient space.

Rotational symmetry

Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in geometry, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn. An object's degree of rotational symmetry is the number of distinct orientations in which it looks exactly the same for each rotation. Certain geometric objects are partially symmetrical when rotated at certain angles such as squares rotated 90°, however the only geometric objects that are fully rotationally symmetric at any angle are spheres, circles and other spheroids.

Sphere Geometry: Properties and Projections

Explores sphere properties, projections, and symmetry, including apparent contours and missing projections of points.

Surfaces in Space

Explores surfaces in space, including paraboloids, spheres, and hyperboloids, and their equations and intersections.

Surface of Revolution

Explains the parametric equations of surfaces of revolution generated by curves in space.

Surfaces with Constant Curvature

Explores surfaces with constant curvature, emphasizing the significance of minimal oriented radius and the properties of pseudo-spheres.

Closed Surfaces and Integrals

Explains closed surfaces like spheres, cubes, and cones without covers, and their traversal and removal of edges.