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Lecture# Chapter 5: Function Studies

Description

This lecture covers the study of functions, including the domain, behavior at boundaries, limits, derivatives, convexity, concavity, inflection points, and asymptotes. It also explores the sign variations of the first and second derivatives.

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Related concepts (30)

Stationary point

In mathematics, particularly in calculus, a stationary point of a differentiable function of one variable is a point on the graph of the function where the function's derivative is zero. Informally, it is a point where the function "stops" increasing or decreasing (hence the name). For a differentiable function of several real variables, a stationary point is a point on the surface of the graph where all its partial derivatives are zero (equivalently, the gradient is zero).

Inflection point

In differential calculus and differential geometry, an inflection point, point of inflection, flex, or inflection (rarely inflexion) is a point on a smooth plane curve at which the curvature changes sign. In particular, in the case of the graph of a function, it is a point where the function changes from being concave (concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa.

Fermat's theorem (stationary points)

In mathematics, Fermat's theorem (also known as interior extremum theorem) is a method to find local maxima and minima of differentiable functions on open sets by showing that every local extremum of the function is a stationary point (the function's derivative is zero at that point). Fermat's theorem is a theorem in real analysis, named after Pierre de Fermat. By using Fermat's theorem, the potential extrema of a function , with derivative , are found by solving an equation in .

Second derivative

In calculus, the second derivative, or the second-order derivative, of a function f is the derivative of the derivative of f. Informally, the second derivative can be phrased as "the rate of change of the rate of change"; for example, the second derivative of the position of an object with respect to time is the instantaneous acceleration of the object, or the rate at which the velocity of the object is changing with respect to time. In Leibniz notation: where a is acceleration, v is velocity, t is time, x is position, and d is the instantaneous "delta" or change.

Singular point of a curve

In geometry, a singular point on a curve is one where the curve is not given by a smooth embedding of a parameter. The precise definition of a singular point depends on the type of curve being studied. Algebraic curves in the plane may be defined as the set of points (x, y) satisfying an equation of the form where f is a polynomial function f: \R^2 \to \R. If f is expanded as If the origin (0, 0) is on the curve then a_0 = 0. If b_1 ≠ 0 then the implicit function theorem guarantees there is a smooth function h so that the curve has the form y = h(x) near the origin.