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Lecture# Quantum Chemical Electronic Structure Methods

Description

This lecture covers the fundamental assumptions behind standard quantum chemical electronic structure methods, the basis set superposition error, and the Hartree-Fock method. Topics include Slater determinants, basis functions, BSSE, and the SCF method. The lecture also delves into the Hartree-Fock energy expression and the justification of empirical rules like Hund's rule.

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In course

CH-353: Introduction to electronic structure methods

Repetition of the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and main numerical algorithms used for practical implementions. Basic principles of electronic structure methods:Hartree-Fock, many body perturbat

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Related concepts (37)

Related lectures (38)

Ab initio quantum chemistry methods are computational chemistry methods based on quantum chemistry. The term ab initio was first used in quantum chemistry by Robert Parr and coworkers, including David Craig in a semiempirical study on the excited states of benzene. The background is described by Parr. Ab initio means "from first principles" or "from the beginning", implying that the only inputs into an ab initio calculation are physical constants.

Quantum chemistry, also called molecular quantum mechanics, is a branch of physical chemistry focused on the application of quantum mechanics to chemical systems, particularly towards the quantum-mechanical calculation of electronic contributions to physical and chemical properties of molecules, materials, and solutions at the atomic level. These calculations include systematically applied approximations intended to make calculations computationally feasible while still capturing as much information about important contributions to the computed wave functions as well as to observable properties such as structures, spectra, and thermodynamic properties.

In theoretical and computational chemistry, a basis set is a set of functions (called basis functions) that is used to represent the electronic wave function in the Hartree–Fock method or density-functional theory in order to turn the partial differential equations of the model into algebraic equations suitable for efficient implementation on a computer. The use of basis sets is equivalent to the use of an approximate resolution of the identity: the orbitals are expanded within the basis set as a linear combination of the basis functions , where the expansion coefficients are given by .

Semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods are based on the Hartree–Fock formalism, but make many approximations and obtain some parameters from empirical data. They are very important in computational chemistry for treating large molecules where the full Hartree–Fock method without the approximations is too expensive. The use of empirical parameters appears to allow some inclusion of electron correlation effects into the methods. Within the framework of Hartree–Fock calculations, some pieces of information (such as two-electron integrals) are sometimes approximated or completely omitted.

Configuration interaction (CI) is a post-Hartree–Fock linear variational method for solving the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation within the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for a quantum chemical multi-electron system. Mathematically, configuration simply describes the linear combination of Slater determinants used for the wave function. In terms of a specification of orbital occupation (for instance, (1s)2(2s)2(2p)1...), interaction means the mixing (interaction) of different electronic configurations (states).

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