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Lecture# Linear Applications: Some Basic Concepts

Description

This lecture covers the fundamental concepts of linear applications, starting with the definition of an application from one set to another. It explains injective, surjective, and bijective applications, along with examples and the composition of functions. The lecture concludes with a proposition regarding bijective applications and the existence of inverse functions.

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In MOOCs (9)

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Inverse function

In mathematics, the inverse function of a function f (also called the inverse of f) is a function that undoes the operation of f. The inverse of f exists if and only if f is bijective, and if it exists, is denoted by For a function , its inverse admits an explicit description: it sends each element to the unique element such that f(x) = y. As an example, consider the real-valued function of a real variable given by f(x) = 5x − 7. One can think of f as the function which multiplies its input by 5 then subtracts 7 from the result.

Surjective function

In mathematics, a surjective function (also known as surjection, or onto function ˈɒn.tuː) is a function f such that every element y can be mapped from some element x such that f(x) = y. In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the of one element of its domain. It is not required that x be unique; the function f may map one or more elements of X to the same element of Y.

Injective function

In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or one-to-one function) is a function f that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, x1 ≠ x2 implies f(x1) f(x2). (Equivalently, f(x1) = f(x2) implies x1 = x2 in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain.

Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function from a set X to a set Y assigns to each element of X exactly one element of Y. The set X is called the domain of the function and the set Y is called the codomain of the function. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a function of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity).

Partial function

In mathematics, a partial function f from a set X to a set Y is a function from a subset S of X (possibly the whole X itself) to Y. The subset S, that is, the domain of f viewed as a function, is called the domain of definition or natural domain of f. If S equals X, that is, if f is defined on every element in X, then f is said to be a total function. More technically, a partial function is a binary relation over two sets that associates every element of the first set to at most one element of the second set; it is thus a functional binary relation.

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