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Lecture# Probability Inequalities

Description

This lecture covers the concept of inequalities in probability theory, focusing on Markov's and Chebyshev's inequalities as useful tools for theoretical purposes. The instructor explains the basic inequality theorem and its applications, demonstrating how to bound probabilities and prove results using convex functions. The lecture also delves into different types of convergence, such as mean square convergence, convergence in probability, and convergence in distribution, showcasing their relationships and practical implications through examples involving random permutations and averages. Additionally, the use of moment generating functions is discussed to show how variables converge in distribution. The lecture concludes with an application of generating functions to approximate binomial distributions with Poisson distributions.

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MATH-233: Probability and statistics

The course gives an introduction to probability and statistics for physicists.

In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space if these events occur with a known constant mean rate and independently of the time since the last event. It is named after French mathematician Siméon Denis Poisson ('pwɑːsɒn; pwasɔ̃). The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of events in other specified interval types such as distance, area, or volume.

In probability theory and statistics, the negative binomial distribution is a discrete probability distribution that models the number of failures in a sequence of independent and identically distributed Bernoulli trials before a specified (non-random) number of successes (denoted ) occurs. For example, we can define rolling a 6 on a dice as a success, and rolling any other number as a failure, and ask how many failure rolls will occur before we see the third success ().

In probability theory and statistics, the moment-generating function of a real-valued random variable is an alternative specification of its probability distribution. Thus, it provides the basis of an alternative route to analytical results compared with working directly with probability density functions or cumulative distribution functions. There are particularly simple results for the moment-generating functions of distributions defined by the weighted sums of random variables.

Probability is the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true. The probability of an event is a number between 0 and 1, where, roughly speaking, 0 indicates impossibility of the event and 1 indicates certainty. The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin.

A Markov chain or Markov process is a stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event. Informally, this may be thought of as, "What happens next depends only on the state of affairs now." A countably infinite sequence, in which the chain moves state at discrete time steps, gives a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC). A continuous-time process is called a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC).