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Lecture# Probability and Statistics: Independence and Conditional Probability

Description

This lecture covers the concepts of independence and conditional probability in the context of probability and statistics. It explains the definition of independence between events and the implications of conditional probability. Examples are provided to illustrate the concepts, such as the probability of events given certain conditions. The lecture also delves into the Law of Total Probability and its application in calculating probabilities. Practical scenarios, like the probability of accidents for male and female drivers, are used to demonstrate the real-world application of these concepts.

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In course

Instructors (2)

MATH-232: Probability and statistics

A basic course in probability and statistics

Related concepts (191)

Probability space

In probability theory, a probability space or a probability triple is a mathematical construct that provides a formal model of a random process or "experiment". For example, one can define a probability space which models the throwing of a die. A probability space consists of three elements: A sample space, , which is the set of all possible outcomes. An event space, which is a set of events, , an event being a set of outcomes in the sample space. A probability function, , which assigns each event in the event space a probability, which is a number between 0 and 1.

Statistics

Statistics (from German: Statistik, () "description of a state, a country") is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal".

Conditional probability

In probability theory, conditional probability is a measure of the probability of an event occurring, given that another event (by assumption, presumption, assertion or evidence) has already occurred. This particular method relies on event B occurring with some sort of relationship with another event A. In this event, the event B can be analyzed by a conditional probability with respect to A. If the event of interest is A and the event B is known or assumed to have occurred, "the conditional probability of A given B", or "the probability of A under the condition B", is usually written as P(AB) or occasionally P_B(A).

Summary statistics

In descriptive statistics, summary statistics are used to summarize a set of observations, in order to communicate the largest amount of information as simply as possible. Statisticians commonly try to describe the observations in a measure of location, or central tendency, such as the arithmetic mean a measure of statistical dispersion like the standard mean absolute deviation a measure of the shape of the distribution like skewness or kurtosis if more than one variable is measured, a measure of statistical dependence such as a correlation coefficient A common collection of order statistics used as summary statistics are the five-number summary, sometimes extended to a seven-number summary, and the associated box plot.

Probability

Probability is the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true. The probability of an event is a number between 0 and 1, where, roughly speaking, 0 indicates impossibility of the event and 1 indicates certainty. The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin.

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