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Lecture# Quantum Harmonic Oscillator: Basics

Description

This lecture covers the basics of the quantum harmonic oscillator, starting with the De Broglie wave function and the uncertainty principle. It then delves into the classical harmonic oscillator model, discussing potential energy, oscillations, and energy quantization. The quantum harmonic oscillator is introduced through the Schrödinger equation, exploring eigenfunctions and energy quantization. Excited states and hermit polynomials are also discussed, highlighting the quantization of energy levels. The lecture concludes with applications of the harmonic oscillator in quantum electrodynamics and open questions regarding multiple interacting particles and atomic structures.

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Related concepts (47)

PHYS-207(a): General physics : quanta

Ce cours est une introduction à la mécanique quantique. En partant de son développement historique, le cours traite les notions de complémentarité quantique et le principe d'incertitude, le processus

Louis de Broglie

Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie (də_ˈbroʊɡli, also USdə_broʊˈɡliː,_də_ˈbrɔɪ, də bʁɔj or də bʁœj; 15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist and aristocrat who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory. In his 1924 PhD thesis, he postulated the wave nature of electrons and suggested that all matter has wave properties. This concept is known as the de Broglie hypothesis, an example of wave–particle duality, and forms a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics.

Matter wave

Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being half of wave–particle duality. All matter exhibits wave-like behavior. For example, a beam of electrons can be diffracted just like a beam of light or a water wave. The concept that matter behaves like a wave was proposed by French physicist Louis de Broglie (dəˈbrɔɪ) in 1924, and so matter waves are also known as de Broglie waves.

Quantum harmonic oscillator

The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator. Because an arbitrary smooth potential can usually be approximated as a harmonic potential at the vicinity of a stable equilibrium point, it is one of the most important model systems in quantum mechanics. Furthermore, it is one of the few quantum-mechanical systems for which an exact, analytical solution is known.

Canonical quantization

In physics, canonical quantization is a procedure for quantizing a classical theory, while attempting to preserve the formal structure, such as symmetries, of the classical theory, to the greatest extent possible. Historically, this was not quite Werner Heisenberg's route to obtaining quantum mechanics, but Paul Dirac introduced it in his 1926 doctoral thesis, the "method of classical analogy" for quantization, and detailed it in his classic text Principles of Quantum Mechanics.

Harmonic oscillator

In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force F proportional to the displacement x: where k is a positive constant. If F is the only force acting on the system, the system is called a simple harmonic oscillator, and it undergoes simple harmonic motion: sinusoidal oscillations about the equilibrium point, with a constant amplitude and a constant frequency (which does not depend on the amplitude).

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