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Lecture# Absolute Value: Definition and Properties

Description

This lecture covers the definition and basic properties of the absolute value function for real numbers. It explains how to calculate the absolute value of a number, the basic properties such as the absolute value of a product and the triangle inequality.

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In MOOCs (9)

Related concepts (23)

Analyse I

Le contenu de ce cours correspond à celui du cours d'Analyse I, comme il est enseigné pour les étudiantes et les étudiants de l'EPFL pendant leur premier semestre. Chaque chapitre du cours correspond

Analyse I (partie 1) : Prélude, notions de base, les nombres réels

Concepts de base de l'analyse réelle et introduction aux nombres réels.

Analyse I (partie 2) : Introduction aux nombres complexes

Introduction aux nombres complexes

Analyse I (partie 3) : Suites de nombres réels I et II

Suites de nombres réels.

Analyse I (partie 4) : Limite d'une fonction, fonctions continues

Limite d’une fonction et fonctions continues

Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a continuous one-dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, continuous means that pairs of values can have arbitrarily small differences. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives.

Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as discontinuities. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is .

Construction of the real numbers

In mathematics, there are several equivalent ways of defining the real numbers. One of them is that they form a complete ordered field that does not contain any smaller complete ordered field. Such a definition does not prove that such a complete ordered field exists, and the existence proof consists of constructing a mathematical structure that satisfies the definition. The article presents several such constructions. They are equivalent in the sense that, given the result of any two such constructions, there is a unique isomorphism of ordered field between them.

Definable real number

Informally, a definable real number is a real number that can be uniquely specified by its description. The description may be expressed as a construction or as a formula of a formal language. For example, the positive square root of 2, , can be defined as the unique positive solution to the equation , and it can be constructed with a compass and straightedge. Different choices of a formal language or its interpretation give rise to different notions of definability.

Extended real number line

In mathematics, the affinely extended real number system is obtained from the real number system by adding two infinity elements: and where the infinities are treated as actual numbers. It is useful in describing the algebra on infinities and the various limiting behaviors in calculus and mathematical analysis, especially in the theory of measure and integration. The affinely extended real number system is denoted or or It is the Dedekind–MacNeille completion of the real numbers.

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