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Lecture# Spherical Coordinates: Integration and Change of Variables

Description

This lecture covers the integration of functions in multiple variables, focusing on spherical coordinates and examples of change of variables. The instructor explains the concept of spherical coordinates, how to perform integrations in this system, and provides examples to illustrate the process step by step.

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Related concepts (28)

MATH-106(e): Analysis II

Étudier les concepts fondamentaux d'analyse et le calcul différentiel et intégral des fonctions réelles de plusieurs
variables.

Function of several real variables

In mathematical analysis and its applications, a function of several real variables or real multivariate function is a function with more than one argument, with all arguments being real variables. This concept extends the idea of a function of a real variable to several variables. The "input" variables take real values, while the "output", also called the "value of the function", may be real or complex.

Variable star

A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) changes with time. This variation may be caused by a change in emitted light or by something partly blocking the light, so variable stars are classified as either: Intrinsic variables, whose luminosity actually changes; for example, because the star periodically swells and shrinks. Extrinsic variables, whose apparent changes in brightness are due to changes in the amount of their light that can reach Earth; for example, because the star has an orbiting companion that sometimes eclipses it.

Del in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

This is a list of some vector calculus formulae for working with common curvilinear coordinate systems. This article uses the standard notation ISO 80000-2, which supersedes ISO 31-11, for spherical coordinates (other sources may reverse the definitions of θ and φ): The polar angle is denoted by : it is the angle between the z-axis and the radial vector connecting the origin to the point in question. The azimuthal angle is denoted by : it is the angle between the x-axis and the projection of the radial vector onto the xy-plane.

Curvilinear coordinates

In geometry, curvilinear coordinates are a coordinate system for Euclidean space in which the coordinate lines may be curved. These coordinates may be derived from a set of Cartesian coordinates by using a transformation that is locally invertible (a one-to-one map) at each point. This means that one can convert a point given in a Cartesian coordinate system to its curvilinear coordinates and back. The name curvilinear coordinates, coined by the French mathematician Lamé, derives from the fact that the coordinate surfaces of the curvilinear systems are curved.

Multiple integral

In mathematics (specifically multivariable calculus), a multiple integral is a definite integral of a function of several real variables, for instance, f(x, y) or f(x, y, z). Integrals of a function of two variables over a region in (the real-number plane) are called double integrals, and integrals of a function of three variables over a region in (real-number 3D space) are called triple integrals. For multiple integrals of a single-variable function, see the Cauchy formula for repeated integration.

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