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Lecture# Signal Processing: Basic Definitions and Properties

Description

This lecture covers the basic definitions and properties of signals, including the typology of signals, the root mean square value, the mean value, the effective value, the power of a signal, and the periodic sequence of Dirac pulses. The instructor discusses digital signals, sampling, and the rectangle function commonly used in signal processing.

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EE-350: Signal processing

Dans ce cours, nous présentons les méthodes de base du traitement des signaux.

Sampling (statistics)

In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset or a statistical sample (termed sample for short) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Statisticians attempt to collect samples that are representative of the population. Sampling has lower costs and faster data collection compared to recording data from the entire population, and thus, it can provide insights in cases where it is infeasible to measure an entire population.

Stratified sampling

In statistics, stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population which can be partitioned into subpopulations. In statistical surveys, when subpopulations within an overall population vary, it could be advantageous to sample each subpopulation (stratum) independently. Stratification is the process of dividing members of the population into homogeneous subgroups before sampling. The strata should define a partition of the population.

Convenience sampling

Convenience sampling (also known as grab sampling, accidental sampling, or opportunity sampling) is a type of non-probability sampling that involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population that is close to hand. This type of sampling is most useful for pilot testing. Convenience sampling is not often recommended for research due to the possibility of sampling error and lack of representation of the population. But it can be handy depending on the situation. In some situations, convenience sampling is the only possible option.

Sampling error

In statistics, sampling errors are incurred when the statistical characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of that population. It can produced biased results. Since the sample does not include all members of the population, statistics of the sample (often known as estimators), such as means and quartiles, generally differ from the statistics of the entire population (known as parameters). The difference between the sample statistic and population parameter is considered the sampling error.

Cluster sampling

In statistics, cluster sampling is a sampling plan used when mutually homogeneous yet internally heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this sampling plan, the total population is divided into these groups (known as clusters) and a simple random sample of the groups is selected. The elements in each cluster are then sampled. If all elements in each sampled cluster are sampled, then this is referred to as a "one-stage" cluster sampling plan.

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