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Lecture# Sets and Functions

Description

This lecture covers the concepts of binary relations, representation of relations, functions, combining relations, composition of relations, n-ary relations, and relational algebra. It also explains reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric, and transitive relations.

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In mathematics, the Rel has the class of sets as and binary relations as . A morphism (or arrow) R : A → B in this category is a relation between the sets A and B, so R ⊆ A × B. The composition of two relations R: A → B and S: B → C is given by (a, c) ∈ S o R ⇔ for some b ∈ B, (a, b) ∈ R and (b, c) ∈ S. Rel has also been called the "category of correspondences of sets". The category Rel has the Set as a (wide) , where the arrow f : X → Y in Set corresponds to the relation F ⊆ X × Y defined by (x, y) ∈ F ⇔ f(x) = y.

In mathematics, a binary relation associates elements of one set, called the domain, with elements of another set, called the codomain. A binary relation over sets X and Y is a new set of ordered pairs (x, y) consisting of elements x in X and y in Y. It is a generalization of the more widely understood idea of a unary function. It encodes the common concept of relation: an element x is related to an element y, if and only if the pair (x, y) belongs to the set of ordered pairs that defines the binary relation.

In mathematics, a finitary relation over sets X1, ..., Xn is a subset of the Cartesian product X1 × ⋯ × Xn; that is, it is a set of n-tuples (x1, ..., xn) consisting of elements xi in Xi. Typically, the relation describes a possible connection between the elements of an n-tuple. For example, the relation "x is divisible by y and z" consists of the set of 3-tuples such that when substituted to x, y and z, respectively, make the sentence true. The non-negative integer n giving the number of "places" in the relation is called the arity, adicity or degree of the relation.

In mathematics, a symmetric polynomial is a polynomial P(X1, X2, ..., Xn) in n variables, such that if any of the variables are interchanged, one obtains the same polynomial. Formally, P is a symmetric polynomial if for any permutation σ of the subscripts 1, 2, ..., n one has P(Xσ(1), Xσ(2), ..., Xσ(n)) = P(X1, X2, ..., Xn). Symmetric polynomials arise naturally in the study of the relation between the roots of a polynomial in one variable and its coefficients, since the coefficients can be given by polynomial expressions in the roots, and all roots play a similar role in this setting.

In algebra and in particular in algebraic combinatorics, the ring of symmetric functions is a specific limit of the rings of symmetric polynomials in n indeterminates, as n goes to infinity. This ring serves as universal structure in which relations between symmetric polynomials can be expressed in a way independent of the number n of indeterminates (but its elements are neither polynomials nor functions). Among other things, this ring plays an important role in the representation theory of the symmetric group.

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