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Lecture# Summation and Sequences: Notations and Formulas

Description

This lecture covers summation notation for sequences, including the sum of terms and the index of summation. It also explains product notation, geometric series, and important summation formulas.

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Related concepts (21)

CS-101: Advanced information, computation, communication I

Discrete mathematics is a discipline with applications to almost all areas of study. It provides a set of indispensable tools to computer science in particular. This course reviews (familiar) topics a

Einstein notation

In mathematics, especially the usage of linear algebra in mathematical physics, Einstein notation (also known as the Einstein summation convention or Einstein summation notation) is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving brevity. As part of mathematics it is a notational subset of Ricci calculus; however, it is often used in physics applications that do not distinguish between tangent and cotangent spaces. It was introduced to physics by Albert Einstein in 1916.

Abstract index notation

Abstract index notation (also referred to as slot-naming index notation) is a mathematical notation for tensors and spinors that uses indices to indicate their types, rather than their components in a particular basis. The indices are mere placeholders, not related to any basis and, in particular, are non-numerical. Thus it should not be confused with the Ricci calculus.

Penrose graphical notation

In mathematics and physics, Penrose graphical notation or tensor diagram notation is a (usually handwritten) visual depiction of multilinear functions or tensors proposed by Roger Penrose in 1971. A diagram in the notation consists of several shapes linked together by lines. The notation widely appears in modern quantum theory, particularly in matrix product states and quantum circuits. In particular, Categorical quantum mechanics which includes ZX-calculus is a fully comprehensive reformulation of quantum theory in terms of Penrose diagrams, and is now widely used in quantum industry.

Cesàro summation

In mathematical analysis, Cesàro summation (also known as the Cesàro mean) assigns values to some infinite sums that are not necessarily convergent in the usual sense. The Cesàro sum is defined as the limit, as n tends to infinity, of the sequence of arithmetic means of the first n partial sums of the series. This special case of a matrix summability method is named for the Italian analyst Ernesto Cesàro (1859–1906). The term summation can be misleading, as some statements and proofs regarding Cesàro summation can be said to implicate the Eilenberg–Mazur swindle.

Product rule

In calculus, the product rule (or Leibniz rule or Leibniz product rule) is a formula used to find the derivatives of products of two or more functions. For two functions, it may be stated in Lagrange's notation as or in Leibniz's notation as The rule may be extended or generalized to products of three or more functions, to a rule for higher-order derivatives of a product, and to other contexts. Discovery of this rule is credited to Gottfried Leibniz, who demonstrated it using differentials. (However, J. M.