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Lecture# Quantization: Topological Operators

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This lecture covers the quantization process in a lattice model using topological operators, focusing on conformal transformations, Ward identities, and correlation functions. The slides discuss the generation of symmetries by topological operators and the importance of contact terms.

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PHYS-739: Conformal Field theory and Gravity

This course is an introduction to the non-perturbative bootstrap approach to Conformal Field Theory and to the Gauge/Gravity duality, emphasizing the fruitful interplay between these two ideas.

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In mathematics, a conformal map is a function that locally preserves angles, but not necessarily lengths. More formally, let and be open subsets of . A function is called conformal (or angle-preserving) at a point if it preserves angles between directed curves through , as well as preserving orientation. Conformal maps preserve both angles and the shapes of infinitesimally small figures, but not necessarily their size or curvature. The conformal property may be described in terms of the Jacobian derivative matrix of a coordinate transformation.

In mathematical physics, the conformal symmetry of spacetime is expressed by an extension of the Poincaré group, known as the conformal group. The extension includes special conformal transformations and dilations. In three spatial plus one time dimensions, conformal symmetry has 15 degrees of freedom: ten for the Poincaré group, four for special conformal transformations, and one for a dilation. Harry Bateman and Ebenezer Cunningham were the first to study the conformal symmetry of Maxwell's equations.

In mathematical physics, a lattice model is a mathematical model of a physical system that is defined on a lattice, as opposed to a continuum, such as the continuum of space or spacetime. Lattice models originally occurred in the context of condensed matter physics, where the atoms of a crystal automatically form a lattice. Currently, lattice models are quite popular in theoretical physics, for many reasons. Some models are exactly solvable, and thus offer insight into physics beyond what can be learned from perturbation theory.

In mathematics, conformal geometry is the study of the set of angle-preserving (conformal) transformations on a space. In a real two dimensional space, conformal geometry is precisely the geometry of Riemann surfaces. In space higher than two dimensions, conformal geometry may refer either to the study of conformal transformations of what are called "flat spaces" (such as Euclidean spaces or spheres), or to the study of conformal manifolds which are Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with a class of metrics that are defined up to scale.

In mathematics, the conformal group of an inner product space is the group of transformations from the space to itself that preserve angles. More formally, it is the group of transformations that preserve the conformal geometry of the space. Several specific conformal groups are particularly important: The conformal orthogonal group. If V is a vector space with a quadratic form Q, then the conformal orthogonal group CO(V, Q) is the group of linear transformations T of V for which there exists a scalar λ such that for all x in V For a definite quadratic form, the conformal orthogonal group is equal to the orthogonal group times the group of dilations.