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Lecture# Confidence Intervals and T-Test

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This lecture covers confidence intervals, Z-statistic, Student's T-test, and hypothesis testing. It explains assumptions, degrees of freedom, and the Student's Theorem. It also delves into the T-distribution, its properties, and critical regions for hypothesis testing.

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A Z-test is any statistical test for which the distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis can be approximated by a normal distribution. Z-tests test the mean of a distribution. For each significance level in the confidence interval, the Z-test has a single critical value (for example, 1.96 for 5% two tailed) which makes it more convenient than the Student's t-test whose critical values are defined by the sample size (through the corresponding degrees of freedom).

A t-test is a type of statistical analysis used to compare the averages of two groups and determine if the differences between them are more likely to arise from random chance. It is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's t-distribution under the null hypothesis. It is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known (typically, the scaling term is unknown and therefore a nuisance parameter).

A test statistic is a statistic (a quantity derived from the sample) used in statistical hypothesis testing. A hypothesis test is typically specified in terms of a test statistic, considered as a numerical summary of a data-set that reduces the data to one value that can be used to perform the hypothesis test. In general, a test statistic is selected or defined in such a way as to quantify, within observed data, behaviours that would distinguish the null from the alternative hypothesis, where such an alternative is prescribed, or that would characterize the null hypothesis if there is no explicitly stated alternative hypothesis.

In statistics, the t-statistic is the ratio of the departure of the estimated value of a parameter from its hypothesized value to its standard error. It is used in hypothesis testing via Student's t-test. The t-statistic is used in a t-test to determine whether to support or reject the null hypothesis. It is very similar to the z-score but with the difference that t-statistic is used when the sample size is small or the population standard deviation is unknown.

In probability and statistics, Student's t-distribution (or simply the t-distribution) is a continuous probability distribution that generalizes the standard normal distribution. Like the latter, it is symmetric around zero and bell-shaped. However, has heavier tails and the amount of probability mass in the tails is controlled by the parameter . For the Student's t distribution becomes the standard Cauchy distribution, whereas for it becomes the standard normal distribution .

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