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Lecture# Complex Logarithm: Extension and Polar Form

Description

This lecture covers the extension of the logarithm to complex numbers, discussing the decomposition of complex numbers, polar forms, and the principal value of the logarithm. It also explores the relationship between logarithms and trigonometric functions.

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Mathematical analysis

Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limits, and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite sequences, series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space).

Complex number

In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted i, called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation ; every complex number can be expressed in the form , where a and b are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, i was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number , a is called the , and b is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols or C.

Nonstandard analysis

The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal numbers. The standard way to resolve these debates is to define the operations of calculus using epsilon–delta procedures rather than infinitesimals. Nonstandard analysis instead reformulates the calculus using a logically rigorous notion of infinitesimal numbers. Nonstandard analysis originated in the early 1960s by the mathematician Abraham Robinson.

Polar decomposition

In mathematics, the polar decomposition of a square real or complex matrix is a factorization of the form , where is a unitary matrix and is a positive semi-definite Hermitian matrix ( is an orthogonal matrix and is a positive semi-definite symmetric matrix in the real case), both square and of the same size. Intuitively, if a real matrix is interpreted as a linear transformation of -dimensional space , the polar decomposition separates it into a rotation or reflection of , and a scaling of the space along a set of orthogonal axes.

Data analysis

Data analysis is the process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, and is used in different business, science, and social science domains. In today's business world, data analysis plays a role in making decisions more scientific and helping businesses operate more effectively.

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