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Lecture# Reciprocal Lattice: Diffraction Basics III

Description

This lecture covers the reciprocal lattice (RL) and its relation to the Bravais lattice, explaining the information coded in each element in the RL and how to extract atomic structure from a diffraction pattern. It delves into the framework and components of the diffraction pattern, the concept of a 'reciprocal Bravais lattice' with regularly spaced peaks, and the inverse proportionality of spacings between peaks in RL to the corresponding dimensions in real space. The lecture also discusses how each point in the RL represents a 'Fourier component' of the diffraction pattern, defining the frequency, direction, and amplitude of sinusoidal waves of electron density.

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In MOOCs (2)

Related concepts (30)

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Sine wave

A sine wave, sinusoidal wave, or sinusoid is a mathematical curve defined in terms of the sine trigonometric function, of which it is the graph. It is a type of continuous wave and also a smooth periodic function. It occurs often in mathematics, as well as in physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields. Its most basic form as a function of time (t) is: where: A, amplitude, the peak deviation of the function from zero. f, ordinary frequency, the number of oscillations (cycles) that occur each second of time.

Fourier transform

In physics and mathematics, the Fourier transform (FT) is a transform that converts a function into a form that describes the frequencies present in the original function. The output of the transform is a complex-valued function of frequency. The term Fourier transform refers to both this complex-valued function and the mathematical operation. When a distinction needs to be made the Fourier transform is sometimes called the frequency domain representation of the original function.

Sinusoidal plane wave

In physics, a sinusoidal plane wave is a special case of plane wave: a field whose value varies as a sinusoidal function of time and of the distance from some fixed plane. It is also called a monochromatic plane wave, with constant frequency (as in monochromatic radiation). For any position in space and any time , the value of such a field can be written as where is a unit-length vector, the direction of propagation of the wave, and "" denotes the dot product of two vectors.

Fourier series

A Fourier series (ˈfʊrieɪ,_-iər) is an expansion of a periodic function into a sum of trigonometric functions. The Fourier series is an example of a trigonometric series, but not all trigonometric series are Fourier series. By expressing a function as a sum of sines and cosines, many problems involving the function become easier to analyze because trigonometric functions are well understood. For example, Fourier series were first used by Joseph Fourier to find solutions to the heat equation.

Fourier analysis

In mathematics, Fourier analysis (ˈfʊrieɪ,_-iər) is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions. Fourier analysis grew from the study of Fourier series, and is named after Joseph Fourier, who showed that representing a function as a sum of trigonometric functions greatly simplifies the study of heat transfer. The subject of Fourier analysis encompasses a vast spectrum of mathematics.