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Lecture# Elementary Operations in Geometry

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This lecture covers elementary operations in geometry, including the bisection of angles and segments, proportionality, Thales' theorem, practical applications, and demonstrations. It also explores the division of segments, multiplication, and extraction of square roots.

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MATH-124: Geometry for architects I

Ce cours entend exposer les fondements de la géométrie à un triple titre :
1/ de technique mathématique essentielle au processus de conception du projet,
2/ d'objet privilégié des logiciels de concept

Bisection

In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal or congruent parts (having the same shape and size). Usually it involves a bisecting line, also called a 'bisector'. The most often considered types of bisectors are the 'segment bisector' (a line that passes through the midpoint of a given segment) and the 'angle bisector' (a line that passes through the apex of an angle, that divides it into two equal angles). In three-dimensional space, bisection is usually done by a bisecting plane, also called the 'bisector'.

Incenter

In geometry, the incenter of a triangle is a triangle center, a point defined for any triangle in a way that is independent of the triangle's placement or scale. The incenter may be equivalently defined as the point where the internal angle bisectors of the triangle cross, as the point equidistant from the triangle's sides, as the junction point of the medial axis and innermost point of the grassfire transform of the triangle, and as the center point of the inscribed circle of the triangle.

Line segment

In geometry, a line segment is a part of a straight line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line that is between its endpoints. The length of a line segment is given by the Euclidean distance between its endpoints. A closed line segment includes both endpoints, while an open line segment excludes both endpoints; a half-open line segment includes exactly one of the endpoints. In geometry, a line segment is often denoted using a line above the symbols for the two endpoints (such as ).

Angle trisection

Angle trisection is a classical problem of straightedge and compass construction of ancient Greek mathematics. It concerns construction of an angle equal to one third of a given arbitrary angle, using only two tools: an unmarked straightedge and a compass. In 1837, Pierre Wantzel proved that the problem, as stated, is impossible to solve for arbitrary angles. However, some special angles can be trisected: for example, it is trivial to trisect a right angle (that is, to construct an angle of 30 degrees).

Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem or Pythagoras' theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry between the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the other two sides. The theorem can be written as an equation relating the lengths of the sides a, b and the hypotenuse c, sometimes called the Pythagorean equation: The theorem is named for the Greek philosopher Pythagoras, born around 570 BC.

Explores Euclid's first proposition, ancient symmetria, and Vitruvius' architectural figures.

Covers the fundamental operations and constructions in Euclidean geometry, focusing on algebraic interpretations and ruler-and-compass constructions.

Explores fundamental operations and theorems in Euclidean geometry, focusing on angles, segments, and circles.

Explores fundamental geometric operations from Euclid's Elements, including bisecting angles and segments.

Delves into the concept of Division in Extreme and Mean Reason (DEMR) and its historical significance in geometry.