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Lecture# Linear Differential Equations: Solutions and Examples

Description

This lecture covers the definition of a solution to a differential equation, the concept of a general solution, and provides examples of finding solutions to linear differential equations. It also explains how to handle singular solutions and initial conditions, emphasizing the separation of variables method.

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Linear differential equation

In mathematics, a linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form where a0(x), ..., an(x) and b(x) are arbitrary differentiable functions that do not need to be linear, and y′, ..., y(n) are the successive derivatives of an unknown function y of the variable x. Such an equation is an ordinary differential equation (ODE).

Ordinary differential equation

In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation (DE) dependent on only a single independent variable. As with other DE, its unknown(s) consists of one (or more) function(s) and involves the derivatives of those functions. The term "ordinary" is used in contrast with partial differential equations which may be with respect to one independent variable. A linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form where a_0(x), .

Differential equation

In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation that relates one or more unknown functions and their derivatives. In applications, the functions generally represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, and the differential equation defines a relationship between the two. Such relations are common; therefore, differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology.

Homogeneous differential equation

A differential equation can be homogeneous in either of two respects. A first order differential equation is said to be homogeneous if it may be written where f and g are homogeneous functions of the same degree of x and y. In this case, the change of variable y = ux leads to an equation of the form which is easy to solve by integration of the two members. Otherwise, a differential equation is homogeneous if it is a homogeneous function of the unknown function and its derivatives.

Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation which computes a function between various partial derivatives of a multivariable function. The function is often thought of as an "unknown" to be solved for, similar to how x is thought of as an unknown number to be solved for in an algebraic equation like x2 − 3x + 2 = 0. However, it is usually impossible to write down explicit formulas for solutions of partial differential equations.

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