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Lecture# The Fundamental Group of a Surface

Description

This lecture covers the concept of the fundamental group of a surface, starting with the associated polygonal presentation and the structure of rings and body. The proof of the cell structure of the surface is explained, along with the identification of vertices and the attachment application. The lecture also discusses the process of choosing vertices and summits, as well as walking through the surface to understand the attachment application.

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Related concepts (50)

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Product of rings

In mathematics, a product of rings or direct product of rings is a ring that is formed by the Cartesian product of the underlying sets of several rings (possibly an infinity), equipped with componentwise operations. It is a direct product in the . Since direct products are defined up to an isomorphism, one says colloquially that a ring is the product of some rings if it is isomorphic to the direct product of these rings.

Ring (mathematics)

In mathematics, rings are algebraic structures that generalize fields: multiplication need not be commutative and multiplicative inverses need not exist. In other words, a ring is a set equipped with two binary operations satisfying properties analogous to those of addition and multiplication of integers. Ring elements may be numbers such as integers or complex numbers, but they may also be non-numerical objects such as polynomials, square matrices, functions, and power series.

Category of rings

In mathematics, the category of rings, denoted by Ring, is the whose objects are rings (with identity) and whose morphisms are ring homomorphisms (that preserve the identity). Like many categories in mathematics, the category of rings is , meaning that the class of all rings is proper. The category Ring is a meaning that the objects are sets with additional structure (addition and multiplication) and the morphisms are functions that preserve this structure.

Rings of Jupiter

The planet Jupiter has a system of faint planetary rings. The Jovian rings were the third ring system to be discovered in the Solar System, after those of Saturn and Uranus. The main ring was discovered in 1979 by the Voyager 1 space probe and the system was more thoroughly investigated in the 1990s by the Galileo orbiter. The main ring has also been observed by the Hubble Space Telescope and from Earth for several years. Ground-based observation of the rings requires the largest available telescopes.

Rings of Saturn

The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System. They consist of countless small particles, ranging in size from micrometers to meters, that orbit around Saturn. The ring particles are made almost entirely of water ice, with a trace component of rocky material. There is still no consensus as to their mechanism of formation. Although theoretical models indicated that the rings were likely to have formed early in the Solar System's history, newer data from Cassini suggested they formed relatively late.

MATH-225: Topology

On étudie des notions de topologie générale: unions et quotients d'espaces topologiques; on approfondit les notions de revêtements et de groupe fondamental,et d'attachements de cellules et on démontre

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