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Lecture# Characteristic Polynomials: Roots and Solutions

Description

This lecture covers the concept of characteristic polynomials associated with differential equations, discussing roots, solutions, and general solutions. It explains how to determine roots, find associated solutions, and the general solution for different cases, including examples with detailed calculations.

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Related concepts (42)

Homogeneous differential equation

A differential equation can be homogeneous in either of two respects. A first order differential equation is said to be homogeneous if it may be written where f and g are homogeneous functions of the same degree of x and y. In this case, the change of variable y = ux leads to an equation of the form which is easy to solve by integration of the two members. Otherwise, a differential equation is homogeneous if it is a homogeneous function of the unknown function and its derivatives.

Delay differential equation

In mathematics, delay differential equations (DDEs) are a type of differential equation in which the derivative of the unknown function at a certain time is given in terms of the values of the function at previous times. DDEs are also called time-delay systems, systems with aftereffect or dead-time, hereditary systems, equations with deviating argument, or differential-difference equations. They belong to the class of systems with the functional state, i.e.

Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation which computes a function between various partial derivatives of a multivariable function. The function is often thought of as an "unknown" to be solved for, similar to how x is thought of as an unknown number to be solved for in an algebraic equation like x2 − 3x + 2 = 0. However, it is usually impossible to write down explicit formulas for solutions of partial differential equations.

Stochastic differential equation

A stochastic differential equation (SDE) is a differential equation in which one or more of the terms is a stochastic process, resulting in a solution which is also a stochastic process. SDEs have many applications throughout pure mathematics and are used to model various behaviours of stochastic models such as stock prices, random growth models or physical systems that are subjected to thermal fluctuations. SDEs have a random differential that is in the most basic case random white noise calculated as the derivative of a Brownian motion or more generally a semimartingale.

Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is mostly shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as . The word aqueous (which comes from aqua) means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry.

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