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Lecture# Sets: Basics

Description

This lecture introduces the concept of sets, including the different types such as natural numbers, integers, rationals, irrationals, algebraic, and transcendental numbers. It covers the notions of belonging to a set, equality between sets, subsets, and the power set of an ensemble.

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Related concepts (46)

Set (mathematics)

A set is the mathematical model for a collection of different things; a set contains elements or members, which can be mathematical objects of any kind: numbers, symbols, points in space, lines, other geometrical shapes, variables, or even other sets. The set with no element is the empty set; a set with a single element is a singleton. A set may have a finite number of elements or be an infinite set. Two sets are equal if they have precisely the same elements. Sets are ubiquitous in modern mathematics.

Power set

In mathematics, the power set (or powerset) of a set S is the set of all subsets of S, including the empty set and S itself. In axiomatic set theory (as developed, for example, in the ZFC axioms), the existence of the power set of any set is postulated by the axiom of power set. The powerset of S is variously denoted as P(S), P(S), P(S), , , or 2S. The notation 2S, meaning the set of all functions from S to a given set of two elements (e.g.

Axiom of power set

In mathematics, the axiom of power set is one of the Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms of axiomatic set theory. In the formal language of the Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms, the axiom reads: where y is the power set of x, . In English, this says: Given any set x, there is a set such that, given any set z, this set z is a member of if and only if every element of z is also an element of x. More succinctly: for every set , there is a set consisting precisely of the subsets of .

Disjoint sets

In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common. Equivalently, two disjoint sets are sets whose intersection is the empty set. For example, {1, 2, 3} and {4, 5, 6} are disjoint sets, while {1, 2, 3} and {3, 4, 5} are not disjoint. A collection of two or more sets is called disjoint if any two distinct sets of the collection are disjoint. This definition of disjoint sets can be extended to families of sets and to indexed families of sets.

Family of sets

In set theory and related branches of mathematics, a collection of subsets of a given set is called a family of subsets of , or a family of sets over More generally, a collection of any sets whatsoever is called a family of sets, set family, or a set system. A family of sets may be defined as a function from a set , known as the index set, to , in which case the sets of the family are indexed by members of .

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