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Lecture# Markov Chains: Ergodic Chains Examples

Description

This lecture covers stochastic models for communications, focusing on discrete-time Markov chains with examples of ergodic chains. Topics include stationary distribution, ergodicity, periodicity, and positive recurrence.

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In course

Instructor

COM-300: Stochastic models in communication

L'objectif de ce cours est la maitrise des outils des processus stochastiques utiles pour un ingénieur travaillant dans les domaines des systèmes de communication, de la science des données et de l'i

Related concepts (69)

Related lectures (62)

Markov chain

A Markov chain or Markov process is a stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event. Informally, this may be thought of as, "What happens next depends only on the state of affairs now." A countably infinite sequence, in which the chain moves state at discrete time steps, gives a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC). A continuous-time process is called a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC).

Ergodicity

In mathematics, ergodicity expresses the idea that a point of a moving system, either a dynamical system or a stochastic process, will eventually visit all parts of the space that the system moves in, in a uniform and random sense. This implies that the average behavior of the system can be deduced from the trajectory of a "typical" point. Equivalently, a sufficiently large collection of random samples from a process can represent the average statistical properties of the entire process.

Ergodic theory

Ergodic theory is a branch of mathematics that studies statistical properties of deterministic dynamical systems; it is the study of ergodicity. In this context, "statistical properties" refers to properties which are expressed through the behavior of time averages of various functions along trajectories of dynamical systems. The notion of deterministic dynamical systems assumes that the equations determining the dynamics do not contain any random perturbations, noise, etc.

Ergodic hypothesis

In physics and thermodynamics, the ergodic hypothesis says that, over long periods of time, the time spent by a system in some region of the phase space of microstates with the same energy is proportional to the volume of this region, i.e., that all accessible microstates are equiprobable over a long period of time. Liouville's theorem states that, for a Hamiltonian system, the local density of microstates following a particle path through phase space is constant as viewed by an observer moving with the ensemble (i.

Pi

The number pi (paɪ; spelled out as "pi") is a mathematical constant that is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, approximately equal to 3.14159. The number pi appears in many formulae across mathematics and physics. It is an irrational number, meaning that it cannot be expressed exactly as a ratio of two integers, although fractions such as are commonly used to approximate it. Consequently, its decimal representation never ends, nor enters a permanently repeating pattern.

Covers stochastic models for communications, focusing on discrete-time Markov chains.

Covers Mod.7 on continuous-time Markov chains, focusing on reversible chains and their applications in communication systems.

Covers reversible continuous-time Markov chains and their properties.

Covers the theory of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and discusses convergence conditions, transition matrix choice, and target distribution evolution.

Covers continuous-time Markov chains, focusing on reversible chains and their properties.