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Lecture# Lie Algebra: Basics and Applications

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This lecture covers the basics of Lie algebra, including Lie algebra structure, killing form, and normal coordinates. It also explores applications of Lie algebra in linear equations and Einstein tensor calculations.

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In the theory of Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representation theory, a Lie algebra extension e is an enlargement of a given Lie algebra g by another Lie algebra h. Extensions arise in several ways. There is the trivial extension obtained by taking a direct sum of two Lie algebras. Other types are the split extension and the central extension. Extensions may arise naturally, for instance, when forming a Lie algebra from projective group representations. Such a Lie algebra will contain central charges.

In differential geometry, the Einstein tensor (named after Albert Einstein; also known as the trace-reversed Ricci tensor) is used to express the curvature of a pseudo-Riemannian manifold. In general relativity, it occurs in the Einstein field equations for gravitation that describe spacetime curvature in a manner that is consistent with conservation of energy and momentum. The Einstein tensor is a tensor of order 2 defined over pseudo-Riemannian manifolds.

In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced liː ) is a vector space together with an operation called the Lie bracket, an alternating bilinear map , that satisfies the Jacobi identity. Otherwise said, a Lie algebra is an algebra over a field where the multiplication operation is now called Lie bracket and has two additional properties: it is alternating and satisfies the Jacobi identity. The Lie bracket of two vectors and is denoted . The Lie bracket does not need to be associative, meaning that the Lie algebra can be non associative.

In the general theory of relativity, the Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) relate the geometry of spacetime to the distribution of matter within it. The equations were published by Albert Einstein in 1915 in the form of a tensor equation which related the local (expressed by the Einstein tensor) with the local energy, momentum and stress within that spacetime (expressed by the stress–energy tensor).

In mathematics, a Lie algebra is semisimple if it is a direct sum of simple Lie algebras. (A simple Lie algebra is a non-abelian Lie algebra without any non-zero proper ideals). Throughout the article, unless otherwise stated, a Lie algebra is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over a field of characteristic 0. For such a Lie algebra , if nonzero, the following conditions are equivalent: is semisimple; the Killing form, κ(x,y) = tr(ad(x)ad(y)), is non-degenerate; has no non-zero abelian ideals; has no non-zero solvable ideals; the radical (maximal solvable ideal) of is zero.

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