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Lecture# Cauchy-Lipschitz Theorem: Local Existence and Uniqueness

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This lecture covers the Cauchy-Lipschitz theorem for local existence and uniqueness of solutions to differential equations. It explains the conditions under which a unique solution exists on a given interval, providing examples and proofs to illustrate the concepts.

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MATH-105(a): Advanced analysis II

Etudier les concepts fondamentaux d'analyse et le calcul différentiel et intégral des fonctions réelles de plusieurs variables.

In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation (DE) dependent on only a single independent variable. As with other DE, its unknown(s) consists of one (or more) function(s) and involves the derivatives of those functions. The term "ordinary" is used in contrast with partial differential equations which may be with respect to one independent variable. A linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form where a_0(x), .

In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation that relates one or more unknown functions and their derivatives. In applications, the functions generally represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, and the differential equation defines a relationship between the two. Such relations are common; therefore, differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology.

In mathematics, a linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form where a0(x), ..., an(x) and b(x) are arbitrary differentiable functions that do not need to be linear, and y′, ..., y(n) are the successive derivatives of an unknown function y of the variable x. Such an equation is an ordinary differential equation (ODE).

In mathematics, specifically in the study of ordinary differential equations, the Peano existence theorem, Peano theorem or Cauchy–Peano theorem, named after Giuseppe Peano and Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a fundamental theorem which guarantees the existence of solutions to certain initial value problems. Peano first published the theorem in 1886 with an incorrect proof. In 1890 he published a new correct proof using successive approximations.

A differential equation can be homogeneous in either of two respects. A first order differential equation is said to be homogeneous if it may be written where f and g are homogeneous functions of the same degree of x and y. In this case, the change of variable y = ux leads to an equation of the form which is easy to solve by integration of the two members. Otherwise, a differential equation is homogeneous if it is a homogeneous function of the unknown function and its derivatives.

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