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Lecture# Sequent Calculus with Equality

Description

This lecture covers Sequent Calculus with Equality, focusing on atomic formulas, formulas, and substitution rules. Topics include the use of variables, atomic formulas, and the application of substitution and instantiation rules.

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CS-550: Formal verification

We introduce formal verification as an approach for developing highly reliable systems. Formal verification finds proofs that computer systems work under all relevant scenarios. We will learn how to u

Related concepts (52)

Well-formed formula

In mathematical logic, propositional logic and predicate logic, a well-formed formula, abbreviated WFF or wff, often simply formula, is a finite sequence of symbols from a given alphabet that is part of a formal language. A formal language can be identified with the set of formulas in the language. A formula is a syntactic object that can be given a semantic meaning by means of an interpretation. Two key uses of formulas are in propositional logic and predicate logic.

Atomic formula

In mathematical logic, an atomic formula (also known as an atom or a prime formula) is a formula with no deeper propositional structure, that is, a formula that contains no logical connectives or equivalently a formula that has no strict subformulas. Atoms are thus the simplest well-formed formulas of the logic. Compound formulas are formed by combining the atomic formulas using the logical connectives.

Integration by substitution

In calculus, integration by substitution, also known as u-substitution, reverse chain rule or change of variables, is a method for evaluating integrals and antiderivatives. It is the counterpart to the chain rule for differentiation, and can loosely be thought of as using the chain rule "backwards". Before stating the result rigorously, consider a simple case using indefinite integrals. Compute Set This means or in differential form, Now where is an arbitrary constant of integration.

Substitution (logic)

A substitution is a syntactic transformation on formal expressions. To apply a substitution to an expression means to consistently replace its variable, or placeholder, symbols with other expressions. The resulting expression is called a substitution instance, or instance for short, of the original expression. Where ψ and φ represent formulas of propositional logic, ψ is a substitution instance of φ if and only if ψ may be obtained from φ by substituting formulas for symbols in φ, replacing each occurrence of the same symbol by an occurrence of the same formula.

Calculus

Calculus is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves.