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Lecture# Spatial Dependence: Concepts and Analysis

Description

This lecture explores the concept of spatial dependence, emphasizing the influence of nearby locations on each other. It delves into spatial autocorrelation, quantifying spatial regularity, and differentiating between observed and random spatial distributions. The instructor discusses Tobler's first law of geography and the paradox of near things being more related than distant ones. The lecture also covers classic statistical methods, bias in linear regression due to spatial dependence, and the importance of considering spatial influence in statistical analysis.

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Instructors (2)

Related concepts (32)

In course

Linear regression

In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach for modelling the relationship between a scalar response and one or more explanatory variables (also known as dependent and independent variables). The case of one explanatory variable is called simple linear regression; for more than one, the process is called multiple linear regression. This term is distinct from multivariate linear regression, where multiple correlated dependent variables are predicted, rather than a single scalar variable.

Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is the mathematical function that gives the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon in terms of its sample space and the probabilities of events (subsets of the sample space). For instance, if X is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ("the experiment"), then the probability distribution of X would take the value 0.5 (1 in 2 or 1/2) for X = heads, and 0.

Ratio distribution

A ratio distribution (also known as a quotient distribution) is a probability distribution constructed as the distribution of the ratio of random variables having two other known distributions. Given two (usually independent) random variables X and Y, the distribution of the random variable Z that is formed as the ratio Z = X/Y is a ratio distribution. An example is the Cauchy distribution (also called the normal ratio distribution), which comes about as the ratio of two normally distributed variables with zero mean.

Random variable

A random variable (also called random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable) is a mathematical formalization of a quantity or object which depends on random events. The term 'random variable' can be misleading as it is not actually random nor a variable, but rather it is a function from possible outcomes (e.g., the possible upper sides of a flipped coin such as heads and tails ) in a sample space (e.g., the set ) to a measurable space (e.g., in which 1 corresponding to and −1 corresponding to ), often to the real numbers.

Nonlinear regression

In statistics, nonlinear regression is a form of regression analysis in which observational data are modeled by a function which is a nonlinear combination of the model parameters and depends on one or more independent variables. The data are fitted by a method of successive approximations. In nonlinear regression, a statistical model of the form, relates a vector of independent variables, , and its associated observed dependent variables, . The function is nonlinear in the components of the vector of parameters , but otherwise arbitrary.

ENV-444: Exploratory data analysis in environmental health

This course teaches how to apply exploratory spatial data analysis to health data. Teaching focuses on the basics of spatial statistics and of epidemiology, and proposes a context to analyse geodatase