**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Lecture# Thermodynamic Equilibria: Concepts and Calculations

Description

This lecture introduces basic thermodynamic conventions, emphasizing the importance of reference states. It covers topics such as total, total molar, and partial molar quantities of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy. The lecture also discusses chemical potential, vapor pressure, and the relationship between chemical potential and pressure in gases. Furthermore, it explores the vapor pressure of elements, the impact of temperature on vapor pressure, and the extrapolation of the reference state in thermodynamic calculations.

Login to watch the video

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

In course

Instructor

MSE-422: Advanced metallurgy

This course covers the metallurgy, processing and properties of modern high-performance metals and alloys (e.g. advanced steels, Ni-base, Ti-base, High Entropy Alloys etc.). In addition, the principle

Related lectures (16)

Related concepts (63)

Thermodynamics and Energetics I

Delves into thermodynamics basics, calculating energy changes, constructing tables, and using Maxwell relations for thermodynamic relations.

Thermodynamics: Fundamentals and Applications

Covers the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, including the first and second laws, entropy, thermodynamic potentials, and phase transitions.

Thermodynamic Potentials

Explores thermodynamic potentials, Legendre transforms, and the link between mechanics and thermodynamics.

Chemical Equilibrium

Explores chemical equilibrium, including equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle, and temperature effects.

Thermodynamics and Energetics I

Delves into thermodynamics, entropy, and isentropic efficiencies of components like turbines and compressors.

Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics. It is an internal state of a single thermodynamic system, or a relation between several thermodynamic systems connected by more or less permeable or impermeable walls. In thermodynamic equilibrium, there are no net macroscopic flows of matter nor of energy within a system or between systems. In a system that is in its own state of internal thermodynamic equilibrium, no macroscopic change occurs.

Thermodynamic cycle

A thermodynamic cycle consists of linked sequences of thermodynamic processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial state. In the process of passing through a cycle, the working fluid (system) may convert heat from a warm source into useful work, and dispose of the remaining heat to a cold sink, thereby acting as a heat engine.

Thermodynamic free energy

In thermodynamics, the thermodynamic free energy is one of the state functions of a thermodynamic system (the others being internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, etc.). The change in the free energy is the maximum amount of work that the system can perform in a process at constant temperature, and its sign indicates whether the process is thermodynamically favorable or forbidden. Since free energy usually contains potential energy, it is not absolute but depends on the choice of a zero point.

Helmholtz free energy

In thermodynamics, the Helmholtz free energy (or Helmholtz energy) is a thermodynamic potential that measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature (isothermal). The change in the Helmholtz energy during a process is equal to the maximum amount of work that the system can perform in a thermodynamic process in which temperature is held constant. At constant temperature, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized at equilibrium.

Phase rule

In thermodynamics, the phase rule is a general principle governing "pVT" systems, whose thermodynamic states are completely described by the variables pressure (p), volume (V) and temperature (T), in thermodynamic equilibrium. If F is the number of degrees of freedom, C is the number of components and P is the number of phases, then It was derived by American physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs in his landmark paper titled On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, published in parts between 1875 and 1878.