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Lecture# Statistical Analysis of Network Data: Hypergraphs

Description

This lecture covers the concept of hypergraphs, which generalize graphs by allowing subsets of nodes to form edges. It explains the order, degree, and regularity of hypergraphs, as well as their applications in various fields such as computer science, genetics, sociology, and healthcare. The lecture also delves into operations on hypergraphs, including isomorphism, subhypergraphs, and strongly independent sets.

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In mathematics, a hypergraph is a generalization of a graph in which an edge can join any number of vertices. In contrast, in an ordinary graph, an edge connects exactly two vertices. Formally, a directed hypergraph is a pair , where is a set of elements called nodes, vertices, points, or elements and is a set of pairs of subsets of . Each of these pairs is called an edge or hyperedge; the vertex subset is known as its tail or domain, and as its head or codomain. The order of a hypergraph is the number of vertices in .

In graph theory, an isomorphism of graphs G and H is a bijection between the vertex sets of G and H such that any two vertices u and v of G are adjacent in G if and only if and are adjacent in H. This kind of bijection is commonly described as "edge-preserving bijection", in accordance with the general notion of isomorphism being a structure-preserving bijection. If an isomorphism exists between two graphs, then the graphs are called isomorphic and denoted as . In the case when the bijection is a mapping of a graph onto itself, i.

In graph theory, a matching in a hypergraph is a set of hyperedges, in which every two hyperedges are disjoint. It is an extension of the notion of matching in a graph. Recall that a hypergraph H is a pair (V, E), where V is a set of vertices and E is a set of subsets of V called hyperedges. Each hyperedge may contain one or more vertices. A matching in H is a subset M of E, such that every two hyperedges e_1 and e_2 in M have an empty intersection (have no vertex in common).

This partial list of graphs contains definitions of graphs and graph families. For collected definitions of graph theory terms that do not refer to individual graph types, such as vertex and path, see Glossary of graph theory. For links to existing articles about particular kinds of graphs, see . Some of the finite structures considered in graph theory have names, sometimes inspired by the graph's topology, and sometimes after their discoverer.

In graph theory, the term bipartite hypergraph describes several related classes of hypergraphs, all of which are natural generalizations of a bipartite graph. Property B The weakest definition of bipartiteness is also called 2-colorability. A hypergraph H = (V, E) is called 2-colorable if its vertex set V can be partitioned into two sets, X and Y, such that each hyperedge meets both X and Y. Equivalently, the vertices of H can be 2-colored so that no hyperedge is monochromatic.