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Lecture# Closed Surfaces and Integrals

Description

This lecture covers the concept of closed surfaces, focusing on spheres, cubes, and cones without covers. It explains the traversal of edges, the removal of edges, and the application of integrals in 3D space.

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Related concepts (236)

Instructors (2)

MATH-201: Analysis III

Calcul différentiel et intégral.
Eléments d'analyse complexe.

N-sphere

In mathematics, an n-sphere or a hypersphere is a topological space that is homeomorphic to a standard n-sphere, which is the set of points in (n + 1)-dimensional Euclidean space that are situated at a constant distance r from a fixed point, called the center. It is the generalization of an ordinary sphere in the ordinary three-dimensional space. The "radius" of a sphere is the constant distance of its points to the center. When the sphere has unit radius, it is usual to call it the unit n-sphere or simply the n-sphere for brevity.

3-sphere

In mathematics, a 3-sphere, glome or hypersphere is a higher-dimensional analogue of a sphere. It may be embedded in 4-dimensional Euclidean space as the set of points equidistant from a fixed central point. Analogous to how the boundary of a ball in three dimensions is an ordinary sphere (or 2-sphere, a two-dimensional surface), the boundary of a ball in four dimensions is a 3-sphere (an object with three dimensions). A 3-sphere is an example of a 3-manifold and an n-sphere.

Riemann sphere

In mathematics, the Riemann sphere, named after Bernhard Riemann, is a model of the extended complex plane: the complex plane plus one point at infinity. This extended plane represents the extended complex numbers, that is, the complex numbers plus a value for infinity. With the Riemann model, the point is near to very large numbers, just as the point is near to very small numbers. The extended complex numbers are useful in complex analysis because they allow for division by zero in some circumstances, in a way that makes expressions such as well-behaved.

Homology sphere

In algebraic topology, a homology sphere is an n-manifold X having the homology groups of an n-sphere, for some integer . That is, and for all other i. Therefore X is a connected space, with one non-zero higher Betti number, namely, . It does not follow that X is simply connected, only that its fundamental group is perfect (see Hurewicz theorem). A rational homology sphere is defined similarly but using homology with rational coefficients.

Exotic sphere

In an area of mathematics called differential topology, an exotic sphere is a differentiable manifold M that is homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic to the standard Euclidean n-sphere. That is, M is a sphere from the point of view of all its topological properties, but carrying a smooth structure that is not the familiar one (hence the name "exotic"). The first exotic spheres were constructed by in dimension as -bundles over . He showed that there are at least 7 differentiable structures on the 7-sphere.

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