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Lecture# Planetary Retrogradations: Copernic's Epicyclic Model

Description

This lecture delves into the historical development of astronomy, focusing on the transition from epicyclic curves to Kepler's ellipses. It explores the challenges faced by ancient astronomers, the Ptolemaic system, and the Copernican revolution. The instructor explains the retrogradation of planets, the inequality of seasons, and the heliocentric hypothesis. The lecture highlights the significance of Copernicus' model in simplifying astronomical explanations and the advantages of heliocentrism over geocentrism.

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In course

Instructor

MATH-126: Geometry for architects II

Ce cours traite des 3 sujets suivants : la perspective, la géométrie descriptive, et une initiation à la géométrie projective.

Related concepts (134)

Kepler's laws of planetary motion

In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, published by Johannes Kepler between 1609 and 1619, describe the orbits of planets around the Sun. The laws modified the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, replacing its circular orbits and epicycles with elliptical trajectories, and explaining how planetary velocities vary. The three laws state that: The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci. A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.

Egyptian astronomy

Egyptian astronomy began in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period. In the 5th millennium BCE, the stone circles at Nabta Playa may have made use of astronomical alignments. By the time the historical Dynastic Period began in the 3rd millennium BCE, the 365 day period of the Egyptian calendar was already in use, and the observation of stars was important in determining the annual flooding of the Nile. The Egyptian pyramids were carefully aligned towards the pole star, and the temple of Amun-Re at Karnak was aligned on the rising of the midwinter Sun.

Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. The Scientific Revolution took place in Europe in the second half of the Renaissance period, with the 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus publication De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) often cited as its beginning.

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplər; joˈhanəs ˈkɛplɐ, -nɛs -; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer, mathematician, astrologer, natural philosopher and writer on music. He is a key figure in the 17th-century Scientific Revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion, and his books Astronomia nova, Harmonice Mundi, and Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae. These works also provided one of the foundations for Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

Copernican heliocentrism

Copernican heliocentrism is the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543. This model positioned the Sun at the center of the Universe, motionless, with Earth and the other planets orbiting around it in circular paths, modified by epicycles, and at uniform speeds. The Copernican model displaced the geocentric model of Ptolemy that had prevailed for centuries, which had placed Earth at the center of the Universe.

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