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MOOC# Analyse I (partie 1) : Prélude, notions de base, les nombres réels

Description

Vous savez calculer la valeur de sin(π/4)? L'identité ln(xy)=ln(x)+ln(y) vous paraît familière? Dans le prélude nous rappelons et approfondissons quelques notions de ce type, en particulier les fonctions trigonométriques sin, cos et tan et leurs propriétés, le concept des fonctions réciproques telles que exp et ln, certaines règles de calcul concernant les puissances, les logarithmes et les racines, les ensembles et les fonctions. Après nous discutons les systèmes de nombres: basé sur la notion "intuitive" des entiers naturels N={0,1,2,3,...}, nous définissons d'une manière rigoureuse les nombres rationnels Q. Nous terminons la discussion des nombres rationnels Q. Ce faisant, nous remarquons que certaines équations très simples, telles que x^2=2, n'admettent pas de solution dans Q. Ceci est une des motivations pour introduire un système de nombres plus grand: les nombres réels R. Nous donnons la définition axiomatique des nombres réels et étudions leurs propriétés.

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Related publications (8)

Lectures in this MOOC (216)

Related courses (271)

Related concepts (267)

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Definition

A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols). Definitions can be classified into two large categories: intensional definitions (which try to give the sense of a term), and extensional definitions (which try to list the objects that a term describes). Another important category of definitions is the class of ostensive definitions, which convey the meaning of a term by pointing out examples. A term may have many different senses and multiple meanings, and thus require multiple definitions.

Lexical definition

The lexical definition of a term, also known as the dictionary definition, is the definition closely matching the meaning of the term in common usage. As its other name implies, this is the sort of definition one is likely to find in the dictionary. A lexical definition is usually the type expected from a request for definition, and it is generally expected that such a definition will be stated as simply as possible in order to convey information to the widest audience.

Circular definition

A circular definition is a type of definition that uses the term(s) being defined as part of the description or assumes that the term(s) being described are already known. There are several kinds of circular definition, and several ways of characterising the term: pragmatic, lexicographic and linguistic. Circular definitions are related to Circular reasoning in that they both involve a self-referential approach. Circular definitions may be unhelpful if the audience must either already know the meaning of the key term, or if the term to be defined is used in the definition itself.

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