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Person# Mathews Jacob

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Related publications (23)

Related research domains (8)

Shape

A shape or figure is a graphical representation of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture, or material type. A plane shape or plane figure is constrained to lie on a plane, in contrast to solid 3D shapes. A two-dimensional shape or two-dimensional figure (also: 2D shape or 2D figure) may lie on a more general curved surface (a non-Euclidean two-dimensional space). Lists of shapes Some simple shapes can be put into broad categories.

Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (ˈælɡərɪðəm) is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. More advanced algorithms can use conditionals to divert the code execution through various routes (referred to as automated decision-making) and deduce valid inferences (referred to as automated reasoning), achieving automation eventually.

Fluorescence microscope

A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence instead of, or in addition to, scattering, reflection, and attenuation or absorption, to study the properties of organic or inorganic substances. "Fluorescence microscope" refers to any microscope that uses fluorescence to generate an image, whether it is a simple set up like an epifluorescence microscope or a more complicated design such as a confocal microscope, which uses optical sectioning to get better resolution of the fluorescence image.

Michaël Unser, Thierry Blu, Mathews Jacob

We introduce a three-dimensional (3-D) parametric active contour algorithm for the shape estimation of DNA molecules from stereo cryo-electron micrographs. We estimate the shape by matching the projections of a 3-D global shape model with the micrographs; we choose the global model as a 3-D filament with a B-spline skeleton and a specified radial profile. The active contour algorithm iteratively updates the B-spline coefficients, which requires us to evaluate the projections and match them with the micrographs at every iteration. Since the evaluation of the projections of the global model is computationally expensive, we propose a fast algorithm based on locally approximating it by elongated blob-like templates. We introduce the concept of projection-steerability and derive a projection-steerable elongated template. Since the two-dimensional projections of such a blob at any 3-D orientation can be expressed as a linear combination of a few basis functions, matching the projections of such a 3-D template involves evaluating a weighted sum of inner products between the basis functions and the micrographs. The weights are simple functions of the 3-D orientation and the inner-products are evaluated efficiently by separable filtering. We choose an internal energy term that penalizes the average curvature magnitude. Since the exact length of the DNA molecule is known a priori, we introduce a constraint energy term that forces the curve to have this specified length. The sum of these energies along with the image energy derived from the matching process is minimized using the conjugate gradients algorithm. We validate the algorithm using real, as well as simulated, data and show that it performs well.

Michaël Unser, Dimitri Nestor Alice Van De Ville, Ildar Khalidov, Mathews Jacob

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) is an attractive tool for medical imaging. However, its practical use is often limited by the intrinsic low spatial resolution and long acquisition time. Spectral localization by imaging (SLIM) has been proposed as a non-Fourier reconstruction algorithm that incorporates spatial a priori information about spectroscopically uniform compartments. Unfortunately, the influence of the magnetic field inhomogeneity—in particular, the susceptibility effects at tissues' boundaries—undermines the validity of the compartmental model. Therefore, we propose BSLIM as an extension of SLIM with field inhomogeneity compensation. A $B _{ 0 }$ -field inhomogeneity map, which can be acquired rapidly and at high resolution, is used by the new algorithm as additional a priori information. We show that the proposed method is distinct from the generalized SLIM (GSLIM) framework. Experimental results of a two-compartment phantom demonstrate the feasibility of the method and the importance of inhomogeneity compensation.

Jean-Philippe Thiran, Yves Wiaux, Erick Jorge Canales Rodriguez, Alonso Ramirez Manzanares, Alessandro Daducci, Maxime Descoteaux, Ying-Chia Lin, Gloria Menegaz, Mathews Jacob

Validation is arguably the bottleneck in the diffusion MRI community. This paper evaluates and compares 20 algorithms for recovering the local intra-voxel fiber structure from diffusion MRI data and is based on the results of the "HARDI reconstruction challenge" organized in the context of the "ISBI 2012" conference. Evaluated methods encompass a mixture of classical techniques well-known in the literature such as Diffusion Tensor, Q-Ball and Diffusion Spectrum imaging, algorithms inspired by the recent theory of compressed sensing and also brand new approaches proposed for the first time at this contest. To quantitatively compare the methods under controlled conditions, two datasets with known ground-truth were synthetically generated and two main criteria were used to evaluate the quality of the reconstructions in every voxel: correct assessment of the number of fiber populations and angular accuracy in their orientation. This comparative study investigates the behavior of every algorithm with varying experimental conditions and highlights strengths and weaknesses of each approach. This information can be useful not only for enhancing current algorithms and develop the next generation of reconstruction methods, but also to assist physicians in the choice of the most adequate technique for their studies.