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Person# Frédéric Alexis Michaud

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Quantum Heisenberg model

The quantum Heisenberg model, developed by Werner Heisenberg, is a statistical mechanical model used in the study of critical points and phase transitions of magnetic systems, in which the spins of

Phase transition

In chemistry, thermodynamics, and other related fields, a phase transition (or phase change) is the physical process of transition between one state of a medium and another. Commonly the term is use

Ising model

The Ising model (ˈiːzɪŋ) (or Lenz-Ising model or Ising-Lenz model), named after the physicists Ernst Ising and Wilhelm Lenz, is a mathematical model of ferromagnetism in statistical mechanics. The m

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This work is devoted to the study of spin S = 1 systems, and more precisely to the emergence of exotic quantum phases in such systems, and to the establishment of tools to observe such phases. It is split in four main chapters. In the first chapter, we show how spin S = 1 systems can emerge from microscopic models, and which kinds of interaction might appear in the effective spin model. We start from a two-orbital Hubbard model, and by a strong coupling development to fourth order, we derive an effective model. We will see that three types of interaction appear beyond the Heisenberg interaction : a plaquette interaction, a biquadratic interaction and a three-spin interaction. In the second chapter, we study Raman scattering on systems with quadrupolar order to show that it can be used to probe such order. We first start by deriving an effective light scattering operator following Shastry and Shraiman calculation on spin S = 1/2 systems. Using this effective operator, we compute the Raman spectra with exact diagonalization and linear flavor-wave theory. We show that two different regimes appear depending on the incoming photon energy, and that combining this to different polarizations accessible with Raman scattering, the presence of quadrupolar order can be established with this probe. The third chapter is devoted to the study of the three-spin interaction that appeared in the first chapter on a chain. We start by establishing the classical and the mean field phase diagram of this system. We then turn to the quantum case. We show that, whatever the value of the spin is, the ground state is perfectly dimerized for a particular value of the three-spin interaction. The presence of such a point in the phase diagram implies the existence of a quantum phase transition when increasing the three-spin interaction. By an intensive numerical study, we show that this transition is continuous, and that its critical behavior is the one of a SU(2)k=2S Wess-Zumino-Witten model, at least for spins S = 1/2,1,3/2,2. In the last section of this chapter, we study the phase diagram of the chain for spin S = 1 under a magnetic field. We conclude this work with a study of the three-spin interaction on a square lattice. The classical and mean field phase diagram are established. It is shown that for a large three-spin interaction, the classical ground state is highly degenerate. This degeneracy is lifted in the quantum case by a process of order by disorder. We compute the quantum fluctuations with linear spin-wave theory, and show that some phases are selected over others. We confirm these results by an exact diagonalization study of the system.

Frédéric Alexis Michaud, Frédéric Mila

Ground states of the frustrated spin-1 Ising-Heisenberg two-leg ladder with Heisenberg intra-rung coupling and only Ising interaction along legs and diagonals are rigorously found by taking advantage of local conservation of the total spin on each rung. The constructed ground-state phase diagram of the frustrated spin-1 Ising-Heisenberg ladder is then compared with the analogous phase diagram of the fully quantum spin-1 Heisenberg two-leg ladder obtained by density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. Both investigated spin models exhibit quite similar magnetization scenarios, which involve intermediate plateaux at one-quarter, one-half and three-quarters of the saturation magnetization.

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We investigate the properties of antiferromagnetic spin-S ladders with the help of local Berry phases defined by imposing a twist on one or a few local bonds. In gapped systems with time-reversal symmetry, these Berry phases are quantized, hence able in principle to characterize different phases. In the case of a fully frustrated ladder where the total spin on a rung is a conserved quantity that changes abruptly upon increasing the rung coupling, we show that two Berry phases are relevant to detect such phase transitions: the rung Berry phase defined by imposing a twist on one rung coupling, and the twist Berry phase defined by twisting the boundary conditions along the legs. In the case of nonfrustrated ladders, we have followed the fate of both Berry phases when interpolating between standard ladders and dimerized spin chains, with the surprising conclusion that, at least far enough from dimerized chains, they define different domains in parameter space. A careful investigation of the spin gap and of edge states shows that a change of twist Berry phase is associated with a quantum phase transition at which the bulk gap closes, and at which, with appropriate boundary conditions, edge states appear or disappear, while a change of rung Berry phase is not necessarily associated with a quantum phase transition. The difference is particularly acute for regular ladders, in which the twist Berry phase does not change at all upon increasing the rung coupling from zero to infinity while the rung Berry phase changes 2S times. By analogy with the fully frustrated ladder, these changes are interpreted as crossovers between domains in which the rungs are in different states of total spin from 0 in the strong rung limit to 2S in the weak rung limit. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that these crossovers turn into real phase transitions as a function of rung coupling if one rung is strongly ferromagnetic, or equivalently if one rung is replaced by a spin 2S impurity.

2013