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Person# Annalisa Quaini

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Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is the interaction of some movable or deformable structure with an internal or surrounding fluid flow. Fluid–structure interactions can be stable or oscillatory. In o

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathema

A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its

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Simone Deparis, Davide Forti, Annalisa Quaini

We study a nonlinear fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problem between an incompressible, viscous fluid and a composite elastic structure consisting of two layers: a thin layer (membrane) in direct contact with the fluid, and a thick layer (3D linearly elastic structure) sitting on top of the thin layer. The coupling between the fluid and structure, and the coupling between the two structures is achieved via the kinematic and dynamic coupling conditions modeling no-slip and balance of forces, respectively. The coupling is evaluated at the moving fluid–structure interface with mass, i.e., the thin structure. To solve this nonlinear moving-boundary problem in 3D, a monolithic, fully implicit method was developed, and combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian approach to deal with the motion of the fluid domain. This class of problems and its generalizations are important in e.g., modeling FSI between blood flow and arterial walls, which are known to be composed of several different layers, each with different mechanical characteristics and thickness. By using this model we show how multi-layered structure of arterial walls influences the pressure wave propagation in arterial walls, and how the presence of atheroma and the presence of a vascular device called stent, influence intramural strain distribution throughout different layers of the arterial wall. The detailed intramural strain distribution provided by this model can be used in conjunction with ultrasound B-mode scans as a predictive tool for an early detection of atherosclerosis (Zahnd et al. in IEEE international on ultrasonics symposium (IUS), pp 1770–1773, 2011).

We discuss in this thesis the numerical approximation of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems with a particular concern (albeit not exclusive) on hemodynamics applications. Firstly, we model the blood as an incompressible fluid and the artery wall as an elastic structure. To solve the coupled problem, we propose new semi-implicit algorithms based on inexact block-LU factorization of the linear system obtained after the space-time discretization and linearization of the FSI problem. As a result, the fluid velocity is computed separately from the coupled pressure-structure velocity system at each iteration, hence reducing the computational cost. This approach leads to two different families of methods which extend to FSI problems schemes that were previously adopted for pure fluid problems. The algorithms derived from inexact factorization methods are compared with other schemes based on two preconditioners for the FSI system. The first one is the classical Dirichlet-Neumann preconditioner, which has the advantage of modularity (i.e. it allows to reuse existing fluid and structure codes with minimum effort). Unfortunately, its performance is very poor in case of large added-mass effect, as it happens in hemodynamics. Alternatively, we consider a non-modular approach which consists in preconditioning the coupled system with a suitable diagonal scaling combined with an ILUT preconditioner. The system is then solved by a Krylov method. The drawback of this procedure is the loss of modularity. Independently of the preconditioner, the efficiency of semi-implicit algorithms is highlighted. All the methods are tested on two and three-dimensional blood-vessel systems. The algorithm combining the non-modular ILUT preconditioner with Krylov methods proved to be the fastest. However, modular and inexact factorization based methods should not be disregarded because they can considerably benefit from code parallelization, unlike the ILUT-Krylov approach. Finally, we improve the structure model by representing the vessel wall as a linear poroelastic medium. Our non-modular approach and the partitioned procedures arising from a domain decomposition viewpoint are extended to fluid-poroelastic structure interactions. Their numerical performance are analyzed and compared on simplified blood-vessel systems.

Annalisa Quaini, Alfio Quarteroni

The interaction between a fluid and a poroelastic structure is a complex problem that couples the Navier-Stokes equations with the Biot system. The finite element approximation of this problem is involved due to the fact that both subproblems are indefinite. In this work, we first design residual-based stabilization techniques for the Biot system, motivated by the variational multiscale approach. Then, we state the monolithic Navier-Stokes/Biot system with the appropriate transmission conditions at the interface. For the solution of the coupled system, we adopt both monolithic solvers and heterogeneous domain decomposition strategies. Different domain decomposition methods are considered and their convergence is analyzed for a simplified problem. We compare the efficiency of all the methods on a test problem that exhibits a large added-mass effect, as it happens in hemodynamics applications. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.