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Person# Benjamin Pierre Charles Wesolowski

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Discrete logarithm

In mathematics, for given real numbers a and b, the logarithm logb a is a number x such that bx = a. Analogously, in any group G, powers bk can be defined for all i

Finite field

In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (so-named in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements. As with any field, a finite field is a set on which the op

Quadratic field

In algebraic number theory, a quadratic field is an algebraic number field of degree two over \mathbf{Q}, the rational numbers.
Every such quadratic field is some \mathbf{Q}(\sqrt

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Benjamin Pierre Charles Wesolowski

We construct a verifiable delay function (VDF). A VDF is a function whose evaluation requires running a given number of sequential steps, yet the result can be efficiently verified. They have applications in decentralised systems, such as the generation of trustworthy public randomness in a trustless environment, or resource-efficient blockchains. To construct our VDF, we actually build a trapdoor VDF. A trapdoor VDF is essentially a VDF which can be evaluated efficiently by parties who know a secret (the trapdoor). By setting up this scheme in a way that the trapdoor is unknown (not even by the party running the setup, so that there is no need for a trusted setup environment), we obtain a simple VDF. Our construction is based on groups of unknown order such as an RSA group, or the class group of an imaginary quadratic field. The output of our construction is very short (the result and the proof of correctness are each a single element of the group), and the verification of correctness is very efficient.

Dimitar Petkov Jetchev, Benjamin Pierre Charles Wesolowski

Robert Granger, Thorsten Kleinjung, Arjen Lenstra, Benjamin Pierre Charles Wesolowski

This paper reports on the computation of a discrete logarithm in the finite field F-230750, breaking by a large margin the previous record, which was set in January 2014 by a computation in F-29234. The present computation made essential use of the elimination step of the quasi-polynomial algorithm due to Granger, Kleinjung and Zumbragel, and is the first large-scale experiment to truly test and successfully demonstrate its potential when applied recursively, which is when it leads to the stated complexity. It required the equivalent of about 2900 core years on a single core of an Intel Xeon Ivy Bridge processor running at 2.6 GHz, which is comparable to the approximately 3100 core years expended for the discrete logarithm record for prime fields, set in a field of bit-length 795, and demonstrates just how much easier the problem is for this level of computational effort. In order to make the computation feasible we introduced several innovative techniques for the elimination of small degree irreducible elements, which meant that we avoided performing any costly Grobner basis computations, in contrast to all previous records since early 2013. While such computations are crucial to the L(1/4 + o(1)) complexity algorithms, they were simply too slow for our purposes. Finally, this computation should serve as a serious deterrent to cryptographers who are still proposing to rely on the discrete logarithm security of such finite fields in applications, despite the existence of two quasi-polynomial algorithms and the prospect of even faster algorithms being developed.