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Person# Sina Shamsoddin

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Simulation

A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Simulations require the use of models; the model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the se

Wind farm

A wind farm or wind park, also called a wind power station or wind power plant, is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity. Wind farms vary in size from a small nu

Wind turbine

A wind turbine is a device that converts the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy. , hundreds of thousands of large turbines, in installations known as wind farms, were generating over 650 g

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Majid Bastankhah, Fernando Porté Agel, Sina Shamsoddin

Wind energy, together with other renewable energy sources, are expected to grow substantially in the coming decades and play a key role in mitigating climate change and achieving energy sustainability. One of the main challenges in optimizing the design, operation, control, and grid integration of wind farms is the prediction of their performance, owing to the complex multiscale two-way interactions between wind farms and the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). From a fluid mechanical perspective, these interactions are complicated by the high Reynolds number of the ABL flow, its inherent unsteadiness due to the diurnal cycle and synoptic-forcing variability, the ubiquitous nature of thermal effects, and the heterogeneity of the terrain. Particularly important is the effect of ABL turbulence on wind-turbine wake flows and their superposition, as they are responsible for considerable turbine power losses and fatigue loads in wind farms. These flow interactions affect, in turn, the structure of the ABL and the turbulent fluxes of momentum and scalars. This review summarizes recent experimental, computational, and theoretical research efforts that have contributed to improving our understanding and ability to predict the interactions of ABL flow with wind turbines and wind farms.

2019Fernando Porté Agel, Sina Shamsoddin

Turbulent axisymmetric wakes under pressure gradient have received little attention in the literature, in spite of their fundamental and practical importance, for example, in the case of wind turbine wakes over topography. In this paper, we develop an analytical framework to analyse turbulent axisymmetric wakes under different pressure gradient conditions. Specifically, we develop a model to predict how an arbitrary imposed pressure gradient perturbs the evolution of the zero-pressure-gradient wake. The starting point of the model is the basic mean conservation of the streamwise momentum equation. We take advantage of the self-similarity of the wake velocity deficit and the assumption that the ratio of the maximum velocity deficit to the wake width is independent of the pressure gradient; such an assumption is supported experimentally for planar wakes, and numerically for axisymmetric wakes in this study. Furthermore, an asymptotic solution for the problem is also derived. The problem is considered for both an axisymmetric strain and a planar strain. The inputs to the model are the imposed pressure gradient and the wake width in the zero-pressure-gradient case. To validate the model results, a set of large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed. Comparing the evolution of the maximum velocity deficit and the wake width, the model results and the LES data show good agreement. Similarly to planar wakes, it is observed that the axisymmetric wake recovers faster in the favourable pressure gradient compared with the adverse one.

Fernando Porté Agel, Sina Shamsoddin

Variability of the rotor aspect ratio is one of the inherent characteristics of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) which differentiates them especially from the more conventional horizontal-axis wind turbines. In this study, we intend to investigate the effect of rotor aspect ratio on VAWT wakes. In particular, we aim to find out whether a common behaviour exists in the mean flow field of such wakes. In order to do so, we first design and perform a set of numerical experiments (using our already validated large-eddy simulation framework) to obtain the mean flow field of the wakes of three VAWTs of different aspect ratio (2, 1 and ) and the same thrust coefficient (). After observing the obvious differences in these three wakes, by using the classical momentum integral and the concept of momentum diameter, we come up with an appropriate normalization length scale , where is the rotor diameter and is the rotor height. By normalizing the lengths (both streamwise and lateral) involved in the mean velocity profiles by , we obtain a remarkable collapse of the wake profiles for the three aspect ratios. As a corollary, cross-sections of wakes of turbines with different aspect ratios eventually converge to a circular shape - not an elliptical one, for example, as one might presume intuitively. This result influences the modelling of VAWT far wakes and, in turn, has implications on the optimal configuration of VAWT farms.