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Person# Mireille El Gheche

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Stochastic gradient descent (often abbreviated SGD) is an iterative method for optimizing an objective function with suitable smoothness properties (e.g. differentiable or subdifferentiable). It can b

Machine learning (ML) is an umbrella term for solving problems for which development of algorithms by human programmers would be cost-prohibitive, and instead the problems are solved by helping machin

In mathematics, gradient descent (also often called steepest descent) is a iterative optimization algorithm for finding a local minimum of a differentiable function. The idea is to take repeated ste

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Giovanni Chierchia, Mireille El Gheche, Pascal Frossard, Hermina Petric Maretic

Graph comparison deals with identifying similarities and dissimilarities between graphs. A major obstacle is the unknown alignment of graphs, as well as the lack of accurate and inexpensive comparison metrics. In this work we introduce the filter graph distance. It is an optimal transport based distance which drives graph comparison through the probability distribution of filtered graph signals. This creates a highly flexible distance, capable of prioritising different spectral information in observed graphs, offering a wide range of choices for a comparison metric. We tackle the problem of graph alignment by computing graph permutations that minimise our new filter distances, which implicitly solves the graph comparison problem. We then propose a new approximate cost function that circumvents many computational difficulties inherent to graph comparison and permits the exploitation of fast algorithms such as mirror gradient descent, without grossly sacrificing the performance. We finally propose a novel algorithm derived from a stochastic version of mirror gradient descent, which accommodates the non-convexity of the alignment problem, offering a good trade-off between performance accuracy and speed. The experiments on graph alignment and classification show that the flexibility gained through filter graph distances can have a significant impact on performance, while the difference in speed offered by the approximation cost makes the framework applicable in practical settings.

Mireille El Gheche, Zahra Farsijani, Pascal Frossard, Matthias Minder

In many applications, a dataset can be considered as a set of observed signals that live on an unknown underlying graph structure. Some of these signals may be seen as white noise that has been filtered on the graph topology by a graph filter. Hence, the knowledge of the filter and the graph provides valuable information about the underlying data generation process and the complex interactions that arise in the dataset. We hence introduce a novel graph signal processing framework for jointly learning the graph and its generating filter from signal observations. We cast a new optimisation problem that minimises the Wasserstein distance between the distribution of the signal observations and the filtered signal distribution model. Our proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art graph learning frameworks on synthetic data. We then apply our method to a temperature anomaly dataset, and further show how this framework can be used to infer missing values if only very little information is available.

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Graph learning is often a necessary step in processing or representing structured data, when the underlying graph is not given explicitly. Graph learning is generally performed centrally with a full knowledge of the graph signals, namely the data that lives on the graph nodes. However, there are settings where data cannot be collected easily or only with a non-negligible communication cost. In such cases, distributed processing appears as a natural solution, where the data stays mostly local and all processing is performed among neighbours nodes on the communication graph. We propose here a novel distributed graph learning algorithm, which permits to infer a graph from signal observations on the nodes under the assumption that the data is smooth on the target graph. We solve a distributed optimization problem with local projection constraints to infer a valid graph while limiting the communication costs. Our results show that the distributed approach has a lower communication cost than a centralised algorithm without compromising the accuracy in the inferred graph. It also scales better in communication costs with the increase of the network size, especially for sparse networks.