Optimisation of the formation and distribution of protoporphyrin IX in the urothelium: An in vitro approach


PURPOSE: To optimize conditions for photodynamic detection (PDD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of bladder carcinoma, urothelial accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and conditions leading to cell photodestruction were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Porcine and human bladder mucosae were superfused with derivatives of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). PpIX accumulation and distribution across the mucosa was studied by microspectrofluorometry. Cell viability and structural integrity were assessed by using vital dyes and microscopy. RESULTS: ALA esters, especially hexyl-ALA, accelerated and regularized urothelial PpIX accumulation and allowed for necrosis upon illumination. CONCLUSIONS: hexyl-ALA used at micromolar concentrations is the most efficient PpIX precursor for PDD and PDT.

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Related concepts (7)
Photodynamic therapy
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a form of phototherapy involving light and a photosensitizing chemical substance, used in conjunction with molecular oxygen to elicit cell death (phototoxicity). PDT is
Bladder cancer
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Molar concentration
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