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Publication# Path properties of the solution to the stochastic heat equation with Levy noise

Abstract

We consider sample path properties of the solution to the stochastic heat equation, in Rd or bounded domains of Rd, driven by a Levy space-time white noise. When viewed as a stochastic process in time with values in an infinite-dimensional space, the solution is shown to have a cadlag modification in fractional Sobolev spaces of index less than - Concerning the partial regularity of the solution in time or space when the other variable is fixed, we determine critical values for the Blumenthal-Getoor index of the Levy noise such that noises with a smaller index entail continuous sample paths, while Levy noises with a larger index entail sample paths that are unbounded on any non-empty open subset. Our results apply to additive as well as multiplicative Levy noises, and to light- as well as heavy-tailed jumps.

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Related concepts (8)

Related publications (4)

Stochastic process

In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic (stəˈkæstɪk) or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a sequence of random variables, where the index of the sequence has the interpretation of time. Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. Examples include the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise, or the movement of a gas molecule.

Lévy process

In probability theory, a Lévy process, named after the French mathematician Paul Lévy, is a stochastic process with independent, stationary increments: it represents the motion of a point whose successive displacements are random, in which displacements in pairwise disjoint time intervals are independent, and displacements in different time intervals of the same length have identical probability distributions. A Lévy process may thus be viewed as the continuous-time analog of a random walk.

Heat equation

In mathematics and physics, the heat equation is a certain partial differential equation. Solutions of the heat equation are sometimes known as caloric functions. The theory of the heat equation was first developed by Joseph Fourier in 1822 for the purpose of modeling how a quantity such as heat diffuses through a given region. As the prototypical parabolic partial differential equation, the heat equation is among the most widely studied topics in pure mathematics, and its analysis is regarded as fundamental to the broader field of partial differential equations.

In this thesis, we study the stochastic heat equation (SHE) on bounded domains and on the whole Euclidean space $\R^d.$ We confirm the intuition that as the bounded domain increases to the whole space, both solutions become arbitrarily close to one another. Both vanishing Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are considered.We first study the nonlinear SHE in any space dimension with multiplicative correlated noise and bounded initial data. We prove that the solutions to SHE on an increasing sequence of domains converge exponentially fast to the solution to SHE on $\R^d.$ Uniform convergence on compact set is obtained for all $p$-moments. The conditions that need to be imposed on the noise are the same as those required to ensure existence of a random field solution. A Gronwall-type iteration argument is used together with uniform bounds on the solutions, which are surprisingly valid for the entire sequence of increasing domains.We then study SHE in space dimension $d\ge 2$ with additive white noise and bounded initial data. Even though both solutions need to be considered as distributions, their difference is proved to be smooth. If fact, the order of smoothness depends only on the regularity of the boundary of the increasing sequence of domains. We prove that the Fourier transform, in the sense of distributions, of the solution to SHE on $\R^d$ do not have any locally mean-square integrable representative. Therefore, convergence is studied in local versions of Sobolev spaces. Again, exponential rate is obtained.Finally, we study the Anderson model for SHE with correlated noise and initial data given by a measure. We obtain a special expression for the second moment of the difference of the solution on $\R^d$ with that on a bounded domain. The contribution of the initial condition is made explicit. For example, exponentially fast convergence on compact sets is obtained for any initial condition with polynomial growth. More interestingly, from a given convergence rate, we can decide whether some initial data is admissible.

Given a sequence L & x2d9;epsilon of Levy noises, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of their variances sigma 2(epsilon) such that the solution to the stochastic heat equation with noise sigma(epsilon)-1L & x2d9;epsilon converges in law to the solution to the same equation with Gaussian noise. Our results apply to both equations with additive and multiplicative noise and hence lift the findings of Asmussen and Rosinski (J Appl Probab 38(2):482-493, 2001), Cohen and Rosinski (Bernoulli 13(1):195-210, 2007) for finite-dimensional Levy processes to the infinite-dimensional setting without making distributional assumptions on the solutions such as infinite divisibility. One important ingredient of our proof is to characterize the solution to the limit equation by a sequence of martingale problems. To this end, it is crucial to view the solution processes both as random fields and as cadlag processes with values in a Sobolev space of negative real order.

We examine the almost-sure asymptotics of the solution to the stochastic heat equation driven by a Levy space-time white noise. When a spatial point is fixed and time tends to infinity, we show that the solution develops unusually high peaks over short time intervals, even in the case of additive noise, which leads to a breakdown of an intuitively expected strong law of large numbers. More precisely, if we normalize the solution by an increasing nonnegative function, we either obtain convergence to 0, or the limit superior and/or inferior will be infinite. A detailed analysis of the jumps further reveals that the strong law of large numbers can be recovered on discrete sequences of time points increasing to infinity. This leads to a necessary and sufficient condition that depends on the Levy measure of the noise and the growth and concentration properties of the sequence at the same time. Finally, we show that our results generalize to the stochastic heat equation with a multiplicative nonlinearity that is bounded away from zero and infinity.