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Publication# Numerical Approximation Of Orthogonal Maps

Abstract

Orthogonal maps are the solutions of the mathematical model of paper-folding, also called the origami problem. They consist of a system of first-order fully nonlinear equations involving the gradient of the solution. The Dirichlet problem for orthogonal maps is considered here. A variational approach is advocated for the numerical approximation of the maps. The introduction of a suitable objective function allows us to enforce the uniqueness of the solution. A strategy based on a splitting algorithm for the corresponding flow problem is presented and leads to decoupling the time-dependent problem into a sequence of local nonlinear problems and a global linear variational problem at each time step. Numerical experiments validate the accuracy and the efficiency of the method for various domains and meshes.

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Related concepts (7)

Related publications (1)

Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). It is the study of numerical methods that attempt at finding approximate solutions of problems rather than the exact ones. Numerical analysis finds application in all fields of engineering and the physical sciences, and in the 21st century also the life and social sciences, medicine, business and even the arts.

Differential equation

In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation that relates one or more unknown functions and their derivatives. In applications, the functions generally represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, and the differential equation defines a relationship between the two. Such relations are common; therefore, differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology.

Nonlinear programming

In mathematics, nonlinear programming (NLP) is the process of solving an optimization problem where some of the constraints or the objective function are nonlinear. An optimization problem is one of calculation of the extrema (maxima, minima or stationary points) of an objective function over a set of unknown real variables and conditional to the satisfaction of a system of equalities and inequalities, collectively termed constraints. It is the sub-field of mathematical optimization that deals with problems that are not linear.

This thesis focuses on the numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) with an emphasis on first and second-order fully nonlinear PDEs. The main goal is the design of numerical methods to solve a variety of equations such as orthogonal maps, the prescribed Jacobian equation and inequality, the elliptic and parabolic Monge-Ampère equations.
For orthogonal map we develop an \emph{operator-splitting/finite element} approach for the numerical solution of the Dirichlet problem. This approach is built on the variational principle, the introduction of an associated flow problem, and a time-stepping splitting algorithm. Moreover, we propose an extension of this method with an \emph{anisotropic mesh adaptation algorithm}. This extension allows us to track singularities of the solution's gradient more accurately. Various numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy and the robustness of the proposed method for both constant and adaptive mesh.
For the prescribed Jacobian equation and the three-dimensional Monge-Ampère equation, we consider a \emph{least-squares/relaxation finite element method} for the numerical solution of the Dirichlet problems. We then introduce a relaxation algorithm that splits the least-square problem, which stems from a reformulation of the original equations, into local nonlinear and variational problems. We develop dedicated solvers for the algebraic problems based on Newton method and we solve the differential problems using mixed low-order finite element method. Overall the least squares approach exhibits appropriate convergence orders in $L^2(\Omega)$ and $H^1(\Omega)$ error norms for various numerical tests.
We also design a \emph{second-order time integration method} for the approximation of a parabolic two-dimensional Monge-Ampère equation. The space discretization of this method is based on low-order finite elements, and the time discretization is achieved by the implicit Crank-Nicolson type scheme.
We verify the efficiency of the proposed method on time-dependent and stationary problems. The results of numerical experiments show that the method achieves nearly optimal orders for the $L^2(\Omega)$ and $H^1(\Omega)$ error norms when smooth solutions are approximated.
Finally, we present an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm for the elliptic Monge-Ampere equation based on the residual error estimate. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is verified using various test cases and two different solvers which are inspired by the two previous proposed numerical methods.