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Publication# Efficient Treatment of Correlation Energies at the Basis-Set Limit by Monte Carlo Summation of Continuum States

Abstract

The calculation of electron correlation is vital for the description of atomistic phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology. However, accurate wavefunction-based methods exhibit steep scaling and often sluggish convergence with respect to the basis set at hand. Because of their delocalization and ease of extrapolation to the basis-set limit, plane waves would be ideally suited for the calculation of basis-set limit correlation energies. However, the routine use of correlated wavefunction approaches in a plane-wave basis set is hampered by prohibitive scaling due to a large number of virtual continuum states and has not been feasible for all but the smallest systems, even if substantial computational resources are available and methods with comparably beneficial scaling, such as the Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to second order (MP2), are used. Here, we introduce a stochastic sampling of the MP2 integrand based on Monte Carlo summation over continuum orbitals, which allows for speedups of up to a factor of 1000. Given a fixed number of sampling points, the resulting algorithm is dominated by a flat scaling of similar to O(N-2). Absolute correlation energies are accurate to

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Electronic correlation

Electronic correlation is the interaction between electrons in the electronic structure of a quantum system. The correlation energy is a measure of how much the movement of one electron is influenced by the presence of all other electrons. Within the Hartree–Fock method of quantum chemistry, the antisymmetric wave function is approximated by a single Slater determinant. Exact wave functions, however, cannot generally be expressed as single determinants.

Basis set (chemistry)

In theoretical and computational chemistry, a basis set is a set of functions (called basis functions) that is used to represent the electronic wave function in the Hartree–Fock method or density-functional theory in order to turn the partial differential equations of the model into algebraic equations suitable for efficient implementation on a computer. The use of basis sets is equivalent to the use of an approximate resolution of the identity: the orbitals are expanded within the basis set as a linear combination of the basis functions , where the expansion coefficients are given by .

Fixed point (mathematics)

hatnote|1=Fixed points in mathematics are not to be confused with other uses of "fixed point", or stationary points where math|1=f(x) = 0. In mathematics, a fixed point (sometimes shortened to fixpoint), also known as an invariant point, is a value that does not change under a given transformation. Specifically for functions, a fixed point is an element that is mapped to itself by the function. Formally, c is a fixed point of a function f if c belongs to both the domain and the codomain of f, and f(c) = c.

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Second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) is the most expedient wave function-based method for considering electron correlation in quantum chemical calculations and, as such, provides a cost-effective framework to assess the effects of basis se ...