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Publication# Gradient expansion formalism for magnetogenesis in the kinetic coupling model

Abstract

In order to describe magnetogenesis during inflation in the kinetic coupling model, we utilize a gradient expansion which is based on the fact that only long-wavelength (superhorizon) modes undergo amplification. For this purpose, we introduce a set of functions (bilinear combinations of electromagnetic fields with an arbitrary number of spatial curls) satisfying an infinite chain of equations. Apart from the usual mode enhancement due to interaction with the inflaton, these equations also take into account the fact that the number of relevant modes constantly grows during inflation. Truncating this chain, we show that even with a relatively small number of equations, it is possible to describe the electric and magnetic energy densities with a few percent accuracy during the whole inflation stage. We arrive at this conclusion for different types of coupling functions (increasing, decreasing, and nonmonotonic) in the regime with strong backreaction and its absence.

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Related publications (3)

We study the generation of electromagnetic fields during inflation when the conformal invariance of Maxwell's action is broken by the kinetic coupling f(2)(phi)F mu nu F mu nu of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton field phi We consider the case where the coupling function f(phi) decreases in time during inflation and, as a result, the electric component of the energy density dominates over the magnetic one. The system of equations which governs the joint evolution of the scale factor, inflaton field, and electric energy density is derived. The backreaction occurs when the electric energy density becomes as large as the product of the slow-roll parameter. and inflaton energy density,rho(E) similar to epsilon rho(inf). It affects the inflaton field evolution and leads to the scale-invariant electric power spectrum and the magnetic one which is blue with the spectral index n(B) = 2 for any decreasing coupling function. This gives an upper limit on the present-day value of observed magnetic fields below 10(-22) G. It is worth emphasizing that since the effective electric charge of particles e(eff) = e/f is suppressed by the coupling function, the Schwinger effect becomes important only at the late stages of inflation when the inflaton field is close to the minimum of its potential. The Schwinger effect abruptly decreases the value of the electric field, helping to finish the inflation stage and enter the stage of preheating. It effectively produces the charged particles, implementing the Schwinger reheating scenario even before the fast oscillations of the inflaton. The numerical analysis is carried out in the Starobinsky model of inflation for the powerlike f proportional to a(a) and Ratra-type f = expo(beta phi/M-p) coupling functions.

2018Related concepts (4)

We study magnetogenesis in axionlike inflation driven by a pseudoscalar field phi coupled axially to the electromagnetic (EM) field (beta/M-p)phi F-mu nu(F) over tilde mu nu with dimensionless coupling constant beta. A set of equations for the inflaton field, scale factor, and expectation values of quadratic functions of the EM field is derived. These equations take into account the Schwinger effect and the backreaction of generated EM fields on the Universe expansion. It is found that the backreaction becomes important when the EM energy density reaches the value rho(EM) similar to (root 2 epsilon/beta)rho(inf) (epsilon is the slow-roll parameter and rho(inf) is the energy density of the inflaton) slowing down the inflaton rolling and terminating magnetogenesis. The Schwinger effect becomes relevant when the electric energy density exceeds the value rho(E) similar to alpha(-3)(EM)(rho(2)(tot)/M-p(4)), where rho(tot) = 3H(2)M(p)(2) is the total energy density and alpha(EM) is the EM coupling constant. For large beta, produced charged particles could constitute a significant part of the Universe energy density even before the preheating stage. Numerically studying magnetogenesis in the alpha-attractor model of inflation, we find that it is possible to generate helical magnetic fields with the maximal strength 10(-15) G, however, only with the correlation length of order 1 pc at present.

2019Using the kinetic approach, we study the impact of the charged particle dynamics due to the Schwinger effect on the electric field evolution during inflation. As a simple model of the electric field generation, we consider the kinetic coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton via the term f(2) (phi)F mu nu F mu nu with the Ratra coupling function f = exp(beta phi/M-p). The production of charged particles is taken into account in the Boltzmann kinetic equation through the Schwinger source term. Produced particles are thermalized due to collisions which we model by using the collision integral in the self-consistent relaxation time approximation. We found that the current of created particles exhibits a non-Markovian character and cannot be described by a simple Ohm's law relation j proportional to E. On the contrary, the electric current as well as the electric field are oscillatory functions of time with decreasing amplitudes and a phase difference due to the ballistic motion of charged carriers. Our qualitative results are checked by using a hydrodynamic approach. Deriving a closed system of equations for the number, current, and energy densities of charged particles and determining its solution, we find a good agreement with the results obtained in the kinetic approach.

2019Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field produced by moving electric charges. It is the field described by classical electrodynamics (a classical field theory) and is the classical counterpart to the quantized electromagnetic field tensor in quantum electrodynamics (a quantum field theory). The electromagnetic field propagates at the speed of light (in fact, this field can be identified as light) and interacts with charges and currents.

Energy density

In physics, energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume. It is sometimes confused with energy per unit mass which is properly called specific energy or . Often only the useful or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that inaccessible energy (such as rest mass energy) is ignored. In cosmological and other general relativistic contexts, however, the energy densities considered are those that correspond to the elements of the stress-energy tensor and therefore do include mass energy as well as energy densities associated with pressure.

Electromagnetism

In physics, electromagnetism is an interaction that occurs between particles with electric charge via electromagnetic fields. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. It is the dominant force in the interactions of atoms and molecules. Electromagnetism can be thought of as a combination of electrostatics and magnetism, two distinct but closely intertwined phenomena.