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Publication# Model order reduction of flow based on a modular geometrical approximation of blood vessels

Abstract

We are interested in a reduced order method for the efficient simulation of blood flow in arteries. The blood dynamics is modeled by means of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. Our algorithm is based on an approximated domain-decomposition of the target geometry into a number of subdomains obtained from the parametrized deformation of geometrical building blocks (e.g., straight tubes and model bifurcations). On each of these building blocks, we build a set of spectral functions by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of a large number of snapshots of finite element solutions (offline phase). The global solution of the Navier–Stokes equations on a target geometry is then found by coupling linear combinations of these local basis functions by means of spectral Lagrange multipliers (online phase). Being that the number of reduced degrees of freedom is considerably smaller than their finite element counterpart, this approach allows us to significantly decrease the size of the linear system to be solved in each iteration of the Newton–Raphson algorithm. We achieve large speedups with respect to the full order simulation (in our numerical experiments, the gain is at least of one order of magnitude and grows inversely with respect to the reduced basis size), whilst still retaining satisfactory accuracy for most cardiovascular simulations.

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Navier–Stokes equations

The Navier–Stokes equations (nævˈjeː_stəʊks ) are partial differential equations which describe the motion of viscous fluid substances, named after French engineer and physicist Claude-Louis Navier and Irish physicist and mathematician George Gabriel Stokes. They were developed over several decades of progressively building the theories, from 1822 (Navier) to 1842-1850 (Stokes). The Navier–Stokes equations mathematically express momentum balance and conservation of mass for Newtonian fluids.

Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood against the walls of blood vessels. Most of this pressure results from the heart pumping blood through the circulatory system. When used without qualification, the term "blood pressure" refers to the pressure in a brachial artery, where it is most commonly measured. Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure (maximum pressure during one heartbeat) over diastolic pressure (minimum pressure between two heartbeats) in the cardiac cycle.

Blood

Blood is a body fluid in the circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells, and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Blood in the circulatory system is also known as peripheral blood, and the blood cells it carries, peripheral blood cells. Blood is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma.

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