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Publication# The S-matrix Bootstrap Reloaded

Abstract

Quantum field theories (QFTs) are the backbone upon which the edifice of modern physics is built. In this thesis we explore the S-matrix bootstrap which is a non-perturbative method that constrains the vast space of QFTs by using consistency conditions that they must satisfy. The thesis is divided into two parts.In part I of the thesis we study the S-matrix bootstrap for particles with spin in 4 spacetime dimensions and apply the formalism to scattering of identical Majorana fermions to estimate bounds on their quartic couplings and their cubic (Yukawa) coupling to scalar particles. In part II of the thesis, we consider the scattering of massless (Goldstone) excitations on a long flux tube. We use the S-matrix bootstrap to constrain Wilson coefficients of higher dimension operators in the low energy flux tube effective field theory. These constraints naturally translate to bounds on the ground state and excited state energy levels of long flux tubes. The techniques used in this thesis should be extendable to many other systems, both massive and massless. We conclude by discussing some of these possibilities.

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Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework that combines classical field theory, special relativity, and quantum mechanics. QFT is used in particle physics to cons

Ground state

The ground state of a quantum-mechanical system is its stationary state of lowest energy; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any stat

Flux tube

A flux tube is a generally tube-like (cylindrical) region of space containing a magnetic field, B, such that the cylindrical sides of the tube are everywhere parallel to the magnetic field lines. It

Andrea Guerrieri, Aditya Hebbar

We bootstrap the S matrix of massless particles in unitary, relativistic two dimensional quantum field theories. We find that the low energy expansion of such S matrices is strongly constrained by the existence of a UV completion. In the context of flux tube (FT) physics, this allows us to constrain several terms in the S matrix low energy expansion or-equivalently-on Wilson coefficients of several irrelevant operators showing up in the FT effective action. These bounds have direct implications for other physical quantities; for instance, they allow us to further bound the ground state energy as well as the level splitting of degenerate energy levels of large FTs. We find that the S matrices living at the boundary of the allowed space exhibit an intricate pattern of resonances with one sharper resonance whose quantum numbers, mass, and width are precisely those of the world-sheet axion proposed by Athenodorou, Bringoltz, and Teper and Dubovsky, Flauger, and Gorbenko. The general method proposed here should be extendable to massless S matrices in higher dimensions and should lead to new quantitative bounds on irrelevant operators in theories of Goldstones and, also, in gauge and gravity theories.

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