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Publication# VL4Pose: Active Learning Through Out-Of-Distribution Detection For Pose Estimation

Abstract

Advances in computing have enabled widespread access to pose estimation, creating new sources of data streams. Unlike mock set-ups for data collection, tapping into these data streams through on-device active learning allows us to directly sample from the real world to improve the spread of the training distribution. However, on-device computing power is limited, implying that any candidate active learning algorithm should have a low compute footprint while also being reliable. Although multiple algorithms cater to pose estimation, they either use extensive compute to power state-of-the-art results or are not competitive in low-resource settings. We address this limitation with VL4Pose (Visual Likelihood For Pose Estimation), a first principles approach for active learning through out-of-distribution detection. We begin with a simple premise: pose estimators often predict incoherent poses for out-of-distribution samples. Hence, can we identify a distribution of poses the model has been trained on, to identify incoherent poses the model is unsure of? Our solution involves modelling the pose through a simple parametric Bayesian network trained via maximum likelihood estimation. Therefore, poses incurring a low likelihood within our framework are out-of-distribution samples making them suitable candidates for annotation. We also observe two useful side-outcomes: VL4Pose in-principle yields better uncertainty estimates by unifying joint and pose level ambiguity, as well as the unintentional but welcome ability of VL4Pose to perform pose refinement in limited scenarios. We perform qualitative and quantitative experiments on three datasets: MPII, LSP and ICVL, spanning human and hand pose estimation. Finally, we note that VL4Pose is simple, computationally inexpensive and competitive, making it suitable for challenging tasks such as on-device active learning.

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Ontological neighbourhood

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In statistics, a normal distribution or Gaussian distribution is a type of continuous probability distribution for a real-valued random variable. The general form of its probability density function is The parameter is the mean or expectation of the distribution (and also its median and mode), while the parameter is its standard deviation. The variance of the distribution is . A random variable with a Gaussian distribution is said to be normally distributed, and is called a normal deviate.

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In statistics, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a method of estimating the parameters of an assumed probability distribution, given some observed data. This is achieved by maximizing a likelihood function so that, under the assumed statistical model, the observed data is most probable. The point in the parameter space that maximizes the likelihood function is called the maximum likelihood estimate. The logic of maximum likelihood is both intuitive and flexible, and as such the method has become a dominant means of statistical inference.

Dirichlet distribution

In probability and statistics, the Dirichlet distribution (after Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet), often denoted , is a family of continuous multivariate probability distributions parameterized by a vector of positive reals. It is a multivariate generalization of the beta distribution, hence its alternative name of multivariate beta distribution (MBD). Dirichlet distributions are commonly used as prior distributions in Bayesian statistics, and in fact, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate prior of the categorical distribution and multinomial distribution.

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