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Publication# Orthologic with Axioms

Abstract

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We study the proof theory and algorithms for orthologic, a logical system based on ortholattices, which have shown practical relevance in simplification and normalization of verification conditions. Ortholattices weaken Boolean algebras while having polynomial-time equivalence checking that is sound with respect to Boolean algebra semantics. We generalize ortholattice reasoning and obtain an algorithm for proving a larger class of classically valid formulas. As the key result, we analyze a proof system for orthologic augmented with axioms. An important feature of the system is that it limits the number of formulas in a sequent to at most two, which makes the extension with axioms non-trivial. We show a generalized form of cut elimination for this system, which implies a sub-formula property. From there we derive a cubic-time algorithm for provability from axioms, or equivalently, for validity in finitely presented ortholattices. We further show that propositional resolution of width 5 proves all formulas provable in orthologic with axioms. We show that orthologic system subsumes resolution of width 2 and arbitrarily wide unit resolution and is complete for reasoning about generalizations of propositional Horn clauses. Moving beyond ground axioms, we introduce effectively propositional orthologic (by analogy with EPR for classical logic), presenting its semantics as well as a sound and complete proof system. Our proof system implies the decidability of effectively propositional orthologic, as well as its fixed-parameter tractability for a bounded maximal number of variables in each axiom. As a special case, we obtain a generalization of Datalog with negation and disjunction.
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Related concepts (49)

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Proof theory

Proof theory is a major branch of mathematical logic and theoretical computer science within which proofs are treated as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. Proofs are typically presented as inductively-defined data structures such as lists, boxed lists, or trees, which are constructed according to the axioms and rules of inference of a given logical system. Consequently, proof theory is syntactic in nature, in contrast to model theory, which is semantic in nature.

Mathematical proof

A mathematical proof is a deductive argument for a mathematical statement, showing that the stated assumptions logically guarantee the conclusion. The argument may use other previously established statements, such as theorems; but every proof can, in principle, be constructed using only certain basic or original assumptions known as axioms, along with the accepted rules of inference. Proofs are examples of exhaustive deductive reasoning which establish logical certainty, to be distinguished from empirical arguments or non-exhaustive inductive reasoning which establish "reasonable expectation".

Logic

Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of deductively valid inferences or logical truths. It studies how conclusions follow from premises due to the structure of arguments alone, independent of their topic and content. Informal logic is associated with informal fallacies, critical thinking, and argumentation theory. It examines arguments expressed in natural language while formal logic uses formal language.

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We study quantifiers and interpolation properties in orthologic, a non-distributive weakening of classical logic that is sound for formula validity with respect to classical logic, yet has a quadratic-time decision procedure. We present a sequent-based pro ...

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2024Motivated by the transfer of proofs between proof systems, and in particular from first order automated theorem provers (ATPs) to interactive theorem provers (ITPs), we specify an extension of the TPTP derivation text format to describe proofs in first-ord ...

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