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Publication# Revisiting the role of friction coefficients in granular collapses: confrontation of 3-D non-smooth simulations with experiments

Abstract

In this paper, transient granular flows are examined both numerically and experimentally. Simulations are performed using the continuous three-dimensional (3-D) granular model introduced in Daviet & Bertails-Descoubes (ACM Trans. Graph., vol. 35, no. 4, 2016b, p. 102), which represents the granular medium as an inelastic and dilatable continuum subject to the Drucker-Prager yield criterion in the dense regime. One notable feature of this numerical model is to resolve such a non-smooth rheology without any regularisation. We show that this non-smooth model, which relies on a constant friction coefficient, is able to reproduce with high fidelity various experimental granular collapses over inclined erodible beds, provided the friction coefficient is set to the avalanche angle - and not to the stop angle, as generally done. In order to better characterise the range of validity of the fully plastic rheology in the context of transient frictional flows, we further revisit scaling laws relating the shape of the final collapse deposit to the initial column aspect ratio, and accurately recover established power-law dependences up to aspect ratios of the order of 10. The influence of sidewall friction is then examined through experimental and simulated collapses with varying channel widths. The analysis offers a comprehensive framework for estimating the effective flow thickness in relation to the channel width, thereby challenging previously held assumptions regarding its estimation in the literature. Finally, we discuss the possibility to extend the constant coefficient model with a hysteretic model in order to refine the predictions of the early-stage dynamics of the collapse. This illustrates the potential effects of such phenomenology on transient flows, paving the way to more elaborate analysis.

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Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction: Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces. With the exception of atomic or molecular friction, dry friction generally arises from the interaction of surface features, known as asperities (see Figure 1).

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