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Publication# Numerical simulation of three-dimensional free surface flows

Abstract

A numerical model is presented for the simulation of complex fluid flows with free surfaces in three space dimensions. The model described in Maronnier et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 1999; 155(2):439) is extended to three dimensional situations. The mathematical formulation of the model is similar to that of the volume of fluid (VOF) method, but the numerical procedures are different. A splitting method is used for the time discretization. At each time step, two advection problems-one for the predicted velocity field and the other for the volume fraction of liquid-are to be solved. Then, a generalized Stokes problem is solved and the velocity field is corrected. Two different grids are used for the space discretization. The two advection problems are solved on a fixed, structured grid made out of small cubic cells, using a forward characteristic method. The generalized Stokes problem is solved using continuous, piecewise linear stabilized finite elements on a fixed, unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons. The three-dimensional implementation is discussed. Efficient postprocessing algorithms enhance the quality of the numerical solution. A hierarchical data structure reduces memory requirements. Numerical results are presented for complex geometries arising in mold filling. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

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We present a numerical model for the simulation of 3D mono-dispersed sediment dynamics in a Newtonian flow with free surfaces. The physical model is a macroscopic model for the transport of sediment based on a sediment concentration with a single momentum balance equation for the mixture (fluid and sediments).
The model proposed here couples the Navier-Stokes equations, with a
volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach for the tracking of the free surfaces between the liquid
and the air, plus a nonlinear advection equation for the sediments (for the transport, deposition, and resuspension of sediments).
The numerical algorithm relies on a splitting approach to decouple diffusion and advection phenomena such that we are left with a Stokes operator, an advection operator, and deposition/resuspension operators.
For the space discretization, a two-grid method couples a finite element discretization for the resolution of the Stokes problem, and a finer structured grid of small cells for the discretization of the advection operator and the sediment deposition/resuspension operator.
SLIC, redistribution, and decompression algorithms are used for post-processing to limit numerical diffusion and correct the numerical compression of the volume fraction of liquid.
The numerical model is validated through numerical experiments.
We validate and benchmark the model with deposition effects only for some specific experiments, in particular erosion experiments. Then, we validate and benchmark the model in which we introduce resuspension effects. After that, we discuss the limitations of the underlying physical models.
Finally, we consider a one-dimensional diffusion-convection equation and study an error indicator for the design of adaptive algorithms. First, we consider a finite element backward scheme, and then, a splitting scheme that separates the diffusion and the convection parts of the equation.

Martinus Gijs, Marco Picasso, Virabouth Prachittham

A space–time adaptive method is presented for the numerical simulation of mass transport in electroosmotic and pressure-driven microflows in two space dimensions. The method uses finite elements with large aspect ratio, which allows the electroosmotic flow and the mass transport to be solved accurately despite the presence of strong boundary layers. The unknowns are the external electric potential, the electrical double layer potential, the velocity field and the sample concentration. Continuous piecewise linear stabilized finite elements with large aspect ratio and the Crank–Nicolson scheme are used for the space and time discretization of the concentration equation. Numerical results are presented showing the efficiency of this approach, first in a straight channel, then in crossing and multiple T-form configuration channels.

Vincent Maronnier, Marco Picasso, Jacques Rappaz

A numerical model is presented for the simulation of complex fluid flows with free surfaces. The unknowns are the velocity and pressure fields in the liquid region, together with a function defining the volume fraction of liquid. Although the mathematical formulation of the model is similar to the volume of fluid (VOF) method, the numerical schemes used to solve the problem are different. A splitting method is used for the time discretization. At each time step, two advection problems and a generalized Stokes problem are to be solved. Two different grids are used for the space discretization. The two advection problems are solved on a fixed, structured grid made out of small rectangular cells, using a forward characteristic method. The generalized Stokes problem is solved using a finite element method on a fixed, unstructured mesh. Numerical results are presented for several test cases: the filling of an S-shaped channel, the filling of a disk with core, the broken dam in a confined domain. (C) 1999 Academic Press.

1999