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Unit# Calcul scientifique et quantification de l'incertitude - Chaire CADMOS

Chair

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Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathema

Approximation

An approximation is anything that is intentionally similar but not exactly equal to something else.
Etymology and usage
The word approximation is derived from Latin approximatus, from prox

Monte Carlo method

Monte Carlo methods, or Monte Carlo experiments, are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results. The underlying concept is to use rando

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We present a combination technique based on mixed differences of both spatial approximations and quadrature formulae for the stochastic variables to solve efficiently a class of Optimal Control Problems (OCPs) constrained by random partial differential equations. The method requires to solve the OCP for several low-fidelity spatial grids and quadrature formulae for the objective functional. All the computed solutions are then linearly combined to get a final approximation which, under suitable regularity assumptions, preserves the same accuracy of fine tensor product approximations, while drastically reducing the computational cost. The combination technique involves only tensor product quadrature formulae, thus the discretized OCPs preserve the convexity of the continuous OCP. Hence, the combination technique avoids the inconveniences of Multilevel Monte Carlo and/or sparse grids approaches, but remains suitable for high dimensional problems. The manuscript presents an a-priori procedure to choose the most important mixed differences and an asymptotic complexity analysis, which states that the asymptotic complexity is exclusively determined by the spatial solver. Numerical experiments validate the results.

The discretization of robust quadratic optimal control problems under uncertainty using the finite element method and the stochastic collocation method leads to large saddle-point systems, which are fully coupled across the random realizations. Despite its relevance for numerous engineering problems, the solution of such systems is notoriously challenging. In this manuscript, we study efficient preconditioners for all-at-once approaches using both an algebraic and an operator preconditioning framework. We show in particular that for values of the regularization parameter not too small, the saddle-point system can be efficiently solved by preconditioning in parallel all the state and adjoint equations. For small values of the regularization parameter, robustness can be recovered by the additional solution of a small linear system, which however couples all realizations. A mean approximation and a Chebyshev semi-iterative method are proposed to solve this reduced system. We consider a random elliptic partial differential equation whose diffusion coefficient κ(x, ω) is modeled as an almost surely continuous and positive random field, though not necessarily uniformly bounded and coercive. We further provide estimates of the dependence of the spectrum of the preconditioned system matrix on the statistical properties of the random field and on the discretization of the probability space. Such estimates involve either the first or second moment of the random variables 1∕ min x∈D κ(x, ω) and max x∈D κ(x, ω), where D is the spatial domain. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical experiments, and implementation details are further addressed.

2022Sundar Subramaniam Ganesh, Fabio Nobile

In this work, we tackle the problem of minimising the Conditional-Value-at-Risk (CVaR) of output quantities of complex differential models with random input data, using gradient-based approaches in combination with the Multi-Level Monte Carlo (MLMC) method. In particular, we consider the framework of multi-level Monte Carlo for parametric expectations and propose modifications of the MLMC estimator, error estimation procedure, and adaptive MLMC parameter selection to ensure the estimation of the CVaR and sensitivities for a given design with a prescribed accuracy. We then propose combining the MLMC framework with an alternating inexact minimisation-gradient descent algorithm, for which we prove exponential convergence in the optimisation iterations under the assumptions of strong convexity and Lipschitz continuity of the gradient of the objective function. We demonstrate the performance of our approach on two numerical examples of practical relevance, which evidence the same optimal asymptotic cost-tolerance behaviour as standard MLMC methods for fixed design computations of output expectations.

2022