Résumé
Quantitative proteomics is an analytical chemistry technique for determining the amount of proteins in a sample. The methods for protein identification are identical to those used in general (i.e. qualitative) proteomics, but include quantification as an additional dimension. Rather than just providing lists of proteins identified in a certain sample, quantitative proteomics yields information about the physiological differences between two biological samples. For example, this approach can be used to compare samples from healthy and diseased patients. Quantitative proteomics is mainly performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), preparative one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, or mass spectrometry (MS). However, a recent developed method of quantitative dot blot (QDB) analysis is able to measure both the absolute and relative quantity of an individual proteins in the sample in high throughput format, thus open a new direction for proteomic research. In contrast to 2-DE, which requires MS for the downstream protein identification, MS technology can identify and quantify the changes. The concentration of a certain protein in a sample may be determined using spectrophotometric procedures. The concentration of a protein can be determined by measuring the OD at 280 nm on a spectrophotometer, which can be used with a standard curve assay to quantify the presence of tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. However, this method is not the most accurate because the composition of proteins can vary greatly and this method would not be able to quantify proteins that do not contain the aforementioned amino acids. This method is also inaccurate due to the possibility of nucleic acid contamination. Other more accurate spectrophotometric procedures for protein quantification include the Biuret, Lowry, BCA, and Bradford methods. An alternative method for label free protein quantification in clear liquid is cuvette-based SPR technique, that simultaneously measures the refractive index ranging 1.0 to 1.
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